AESoviet Union sources, in particular defectors and agents.
AEASPICDavid Tzitzichvili aka David de Panaskhet was a surveillance and sabotage agent and included in the planning stages of at least one unfinished plot for assassination in the Congo.
AEBARMANSoviet officer Yuri Ivonovich Nosenko, who defected in Feb 1964 with information about Oswald.
AEBURBLEStateside Soviet double-agent controlled by the FBI, and code-named TUMBLEWEED by the FBI. Actual name Guenter Schulz.
AECAMBARO-1Freds Ziedonids Launags, he was a contract agent for the CIA from 1951 to 1959 and was a member of the Latvian underground that targeted Soviet internal operations and gathered intelligence.
AECAMBARO-2Leonids Brombergs, aka Arturs Leonids Brombergs. Active in the Latvian resistance.
AECLUSTERVladimir Sakharov, a Soviet diplomat that later served the CIA as a defector in place.
AEDEPOTAEDEPOT (formerly AEREADY) (1957-65) was designed to provide a trained „Hot War“ cadre of agents who could be used during a period of heightened tensions/increased alert or during actual hostilities against the Soviet Union. Mikola Abramtchik, Constantine Mierlak, Tscherim Soobzokov associated with Project. AEDEPOT personnel were made available to other functions within the CIA at the Director’s approval – for instance personnel from that unit were used in training Cuban volunteers at bases in both Panama and Guatemela for the JMMATE project against Castro’s regime in Cuba
AEDINOSAURSoviet Russia Division project. Designed to get censored books inside the Soviet Union.
AEDIPPER-20Piotr Deriabin – aka Peter Deryabin – a Soviet defector during 1954. [status: Probable]
AEDONORSoviet officer Yuri Ivonovich Nosenko, who defected in Feb 1964 with information about Oswald.
AEFISSIONNikolai Ivanovich Trofimov.
AEFOXTROTSoviet officer Yuri Ivonovich Nosenko, who defected in Feb 1964 with information about Oswald.
AEGENERATEA target in Mexico City that was wiretapped by LIFEAT’S listening post, referred to as the AEGENERATE LP. This was an important CI/CE operation that involved the NSA. During late October 1963, Staff D concluded that the subject was not currently communicating from „his shop“. [status: Probable]
AEGOLDA defector with the surname Zavoroskiy
AEGUSTOYuriy Loginov, a KGB officer who became an in-place double agent for the CIA. [status: Probable]
AEJAMMERTranslations and exploitations of Soviet mail intercept programs.
AELADLEAnatoliy Golitsyn, a Soviet defector prized by CIA CounterIntelligence head James Angleton.
AELENISVladimir Mikhailovich Petrov.
AEMIGALEAntanas Zigmas Butkus
AEMIQUELET-2A suspect Soviet support agent in Mexico City in 1963. „Miquilet“ means musket. [status: Probable]
AEOCEANThe legal travelers program; i.e., the intelligence use of legal travelers to the Soviet Union.
AEOCEAN-3Philip R. Neilson was the agent used by CIA Officer Jacques Richardson aka Thomas B. Casasin for the CIA’s Legal Travelers Program inside the Soviet Union. This agent similar to Lee Harvey Oswald was able to marry a Russian woman named Tamara Kungarova and later immigrate to France with her.
AEPLEBEA Soviet defector with the surname Bimbli.
AESTORAGECollection of information about the Soviets provided by several reliable and sensitive sources.
AMOperations, organizations, and individuals relating to Cuba.
AMACRATICGeorge Nobregas, a Cuban exile and Executive Committee member of the Montecristi Group. [status: Probable]
AMAKA-1One of the radio men working on the AMTRUNK personnel during November, 1963. [status: Unknown]
AMANCHOR-1Alberto Beguiristain, was a frogman for the CIA in the 1960’s, and an associate of Rolando Martinez (the anti-Castro Cuban activist who was one of the Watergate burglars in 1972). He was also an associate of Manuel Villamanan (AMFAUNA-13).
AMAPACHE-2Iglesais Pons, JMWAVE FI asset, arrived Key West 6/16/61 on boat PANMAJA.
AMAPOLAAn agent complex for the Cuban Intelligence Service, with an outstation in Miami. One of the principal agents was Jose Carbonell Marrero.
AMAUTO-1Orestes Guillermo Ruiz-Perez was a Cuban official and a Cuban intelligence officer. He was also the cousin-in-law of Cuban exile leader Antonio Veciana Blanch. [status: Probable]
AMBADGER-1Dr. Julian Gallo, head of legal department of Cuban telephone company.
AMBANGMRP until 1962 – during 1962, the MRP outside of Cuba became JURE. The Cuban group within Cuba was much smaller by 1962 because of the arrests in 1961.
AMBANG-1Manuel Ray Rivero, leader of the Revolutionary Movement of the People (MRP) and later Junta Revolucionaria Cubana (JURE).
AMBANG-2Ignacio Mendoza y de la Torre.
AMBANG-3Jose Antonio Duarte Oropesa
AMBANG-4Rogelio Winceslao Cisneros y Diaz, one of the leaders of MRP inside Cuba; shortly after his arrival in the US, the MRP group split off and became JURE.
AMBANG-5Oswaldo Rodriguez Moura.
AMBANTYParamilitary operation of internal resistance in Cuba during 1965-64 before Castro shut it down. Originally called AMCOBRA in 1962.
AMBANTY-1Esteban Marquez Novo. His oft-used pseudonym was Colonel Francisco Abad.
AMBARBPropaganda project to place DRE members in universities throughout Latin America.
AMBARB-19Nephew of AMFACET-1 (Umberto Figueres Gonzalez). Name unknown. [status: Unknown]
AMBARB-22(First name unknown) Corredera, a Cuban Revolutionary Council representative based in Lima, Peru in 1962.
AMBARB-41Rafael Tremols Fresneda, DRE member in Caracas.
AMBARB-54Jose Maria Lasa Urrutibeascoa [status: Probable]
AMBARB-70Martin Morua Arrechea, national coordinator of DRE 1962-63. Joined propaganda unit within TFW in April 1962; by Oct 1962, a TFW „ops specialist“. During 1961 and 1962 he was trying to purchase detonators in Chicago with Jorge Salazar who hosted Alpha 66 meetings at 3126 Harlandale, Dallas.
AMBARB-90Unknown. [status: Unknown]
AMBARK-1Hernandez (first name unknown). [status: Unknown]
AMBASAL-1Unknown identity. Was a CIA asset working mainly on propaganda activities, and was part of one of JMWAVE’s psychological projects directed against the Castro regime. He was recommended by Luis Aguero Conte (AMCORE-2) to accompany him in 1966 on a proposed trip to Central America. He was 42 years old in 1966. [status: Unknown]
AMBASS-1Anis Felaifel, the chief of intelligence for the MRR.
AMBIDDY-1Manuel Artime Buesa, a prominent Cuban exile who was in the Bay of Pigs invasion, in 1963 moved to Nicaragua as leader of operation AMWORLD. In 1963, he used the pseudonym „Ignacio“.
AMBLAB-1AMBLAB-1 is Domingo G. Silverio, aka „Alligator.“ Alligator is another messenger (besides AMULAR) used by Silvio Cardenas as a channel to William Pawley. Cardenas was the contact person for Rubio Padilla to communicate with Pawley. Rubio, Cardenas, and Pepin Rivero were active in the anti-Castro Accion Democratica Christiana (ADC) group in Cuba.
AMBLEAK-1Estaban Joaquin Blanco Sanchez, an official of Rescate. Also known as Fernando Fernandez Cavada y Paris, an official of UR, and Frank Dutton.
AMBLESS-1Alberto del Junco Mesa, head of the internal wing of MDC from June 1961 until his defection January 1962; afterwards, he led a major faction in the US. Also known as „Julian Diego“ and „Jesus“.
AMBLESS-3Violeta del Junco Mesa, mother of Alberto del Junco Mesa.
AMBLINK-1Jack Stewart, also known as Henry Pachankis, „Joe“, Andrew Merton, Jack Warren, and Vincent Pivall. [status: Probable]
AMBLOODLuis Torroella y Martin Rivero, former Cuban Treasury minister who was executed in 1962 for his role in planning to kill Fidel Castro.
AMBLYGONRolando Masferrer Rojas. Was a casual informant – not an employee – from 1948-1950. [status: Probable]
AMBOARMitchell Livingston WerBell, III, an arms merchant based in Powder Springs, Georgia. [status: Probable]
AMBOLT-2Agent in Miami in contact with Evilio Duque, possibly the attorney Gonzalo Lage. [status: Speculative]
AMBRONC-1Colonel Eduardo Martin y Elena
AMBRONC-5Juan Manuel Guillot Castellanos aka Renato M. Lopez Zamoka. Alias „Monty“.
AMBRUSHIntel Section of the FRD (Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front). Later described as the CRC’s security and counter-intelligence team.
AMBUCKLE-1Ana Tomeu de Miller, head of the women’s group known as the CFC.
AMBUDCuban Revolutionary Council (CRC), Cuban exile organization formed on 22 Mar 1961 under U.S. guidance to unify various exile groups. By late 1963, Henry Ruiz-Williams was the titular liaison between the moribund organization and the Kennedy Administration.
AMBUD-1Jose Miro Cardona, first Prime Minister of Cuba under Castro, who left Cuba and headed the Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC) exile group.
AMBUD-7Pedro Aponte Mendez. Was a member of the Cuban Revolutionary Council (AMBUD), and was also an official of FORDC (AMICE).
AMBUD-8Maximo Sorondo Quintana. Sorondo was a CRC delegate in Colombia, Dominican Republic Brazil in the 1960’s, and became a CIA asset in early 1963.
AMCALLCatholic Action group. [status: Probable]
AMCALL-1Reinol Gonzalez Gonzalez, head of the Catholic-based MRP in Cuba until arrested at the Cesar Odio farm in October 1961. Also referred to as „Reynoldo“. His war name was „Antonio“. Another psuedonym was „Joaquin“.
AMCALL-2Known as „Pepe Alegria“, and possibly the man known to Antonio Veciana as „Melton“. HIs actual identity may have been CIA officer James O’Mailia. O’Mailia was also known as „Pepe“. [status: Speculative]
AMCANOEProject of U.S. contacts for a resistance group in Cuba, incl. support of Unidad de Liberacion Nacional (ULN). Paulino Sierra worked with this group in an effort to unify exiles.
AMCANOE-1Eduardo Garcia Molina.
AMCANOE-3Antonio Jose Ramirez Mendez aka Tony Ramallo
AMCANOE-7Benjamin Acosta Valdes.
AMCANOE-9Juan Amestoy Dominguez.
AMCAPE-1Tad Szulc, confidant of JFK, New York Times journalist involved in AMTRUNK project.
AMCARBON-1Al Burt, Miami Herald journalist used as source and „operational support“ for CIA’s JMWAVE station.
AMCARBON-2A Miami Herald journalist who introduced Shackley to Al Burt/AMCARBON-1 in late 1962 to ensure that CIA always had access to a Herald reporter. One possibility is Dom Bonafede, who was the chief Latin American correspondent until mid-1963. [status: Speculative]
AMCARBON-3Donald Dean Bohning, Latin American editor of Miami Herald and CIA source.
AMCHALK-1Gustavo Villoldo, chief of the intelligence service of Brigade 2506 in Guatemala in 1960-1961. After the Bay of Pigs, he spotted Cubans for recruitment and was a principal agent in paramilitary teams. Played a key role in the destruction of Che Guevara’s guerrilla band in Bolivia in 1967. [status: Probable]
AMCHALK-5Miguel Angel Diaz Isalgue served as a Team Leader for several black infiltration groups targeting Cuba during the 1960s.
AMCHEERThe AMCHEERS were a group of approximately 100 older, non-political Cubans, who received training from Dave Morales at JMWAVE as reserve intelligence personnel—80 had been trained by April 1961.
AMCHEER-1Julio G. Garcia aka Al Smith, „D-81“
AMCHIRP-1Ramon Barquin Lopez of the MRP.
AMCIGARFrente Revolucionario Democratico (FRD) Executive Committee; changed name in November 1960 to AMPORT.
AMCLATTER-1Bernard Leon Barker, Cuban exile and a contract agent for CIA. Barker worked with E. Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, and Rolando Martinez – all four men were part of the team of Watergate burglars. His pseudonym was Spencer O. Terteling.
AMCLATTER-5Alberto de Jesus Alberty Garcia.
AMCLATTER-6Associate of Bernard Barker (AMCLATTER-1); identity unknown. [status: Probable]
AMCLEVE-15Luis Posada Carriles, aka Luis Clemente Faustino Posada, Luis Clemente Posada, Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles, El Bambi, Father Frank Roddson, Jr.
AMCOAX-1Jose Pujals Mederos. His patronymic is also seen as Pujol and Pujols. Aliases included Chacho and Ernesto. [status: Probable]
AMCOBRAParamilitary operation of internal resistance in Cuba, renamed AMBANTY, rolled up by Castro in 1964. One of the two teams infiltrated into Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis.
AMCOGA “complex” operational net inside Cuba.
AMCOG-1Ramón Grau Alsina, a.k.a. Mongo. Brother of AMCOG-2. Nephew and later adopted son of AMCOG-3.
AMCOG-2Mrs. (Maria) Leopoldina Grau Alsina de Agüero, aka “Polita.”
AMCOG-3Ramon Grau San Martin, uncle of AMCOG-2 and AMCOG-1 (later foster father of AMCOG-1). Former (1944-48) Cuban President.
AMCOG-5Alleged sighting of Oswald in Cuba by a woman who was a source for AMCOG-5.
AMCONCERT-1Francisco Wilfredo Varona Alonso, AKA „Pancho,“ AKA „Paco.“ No relation to FRD chief Tony Varona.
AMCOODelia Failde, the “Dragon Lady”, operator of commercial boats including the Veramar used in CIA exfiltrations.
AMCOOP-1Miguel Xiques Macias. Allied with AMCALL-1 during 1961.
AMCOREA political action/propaganda operation using radio commentators to promote resistance, harassment, and sabotage against the Castro government.
AMCORE-1Abel Mestre, former owner of television and radio station „Circuito CMQ“ in Cuba.
AMCORE-2Luis Ernesto Conte Aguero, former radio and TV commentator in Cuba who subsequently „worked on propaganda for the FRD“ under AMCORE-1.
AMCOUP-1Ralph Brent aka Rolf Brent, president of WRUL and in charge of programming. [status: Probable]
AMCOVEAn „operation centered around an FI (Foreign Intelligence) net in Cuba to report intelligence information via Secret Writing.“
AMCRAG-1Francisco Bilbao Alvarez, MRR chief, Oriente province, 1960-61. Worked with ONI intelligence officer Harold Feeney at Guantanamo Naval Base in the early sixties.
AMCRIB-1Jesus Angulo Clemente. Was formerly a member of the Cuban Communist Party, and was from the radical left wing of the anti-Castro Cuban movement in the U.S. Participated in the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961, and was active in the COJCE and MDC in particular.
AMCROAK-1Bernardo Milanes Lopez, Castro’s mother’s doctor, recruited by Tony Sforza in Madrid in 1963. Part of Operation Raphael, a plot to assassinate Fidel, Raul, and Che.
AMCROW-1Oscar de la Vega Torres
AMCRUMP-7Angel Hernandez Rojo was a member of the DRE and the MDC in the 1960’s. He was a boat operator.
AMCUBE-1Pedro Jose Lucas Alvarez. During 1961, received in Cuba all equipment targeted for delivery to MDC. [status: Probable]
AMCUTLER-1Brother of David Capeza Coupau. Courier for the AMFAUNA network. [status: Unknown]
AMCUTLER-2Courier, wife of AMCUTLER-1. Known as Carmina. [status: Unknown]
AMDENIM-1Alberto Fernandez Hechevarria, aka Echevarria, Cuban exile whose boat Tejana was used in anti-Castro activities. Leader of the paramilitary wing of the Unidad Revolucionario (UR). A source on CIA unsanctioned exile missions such as those conducted by Alpha 66.
AMDENIM-11Eduardo Perez Gonzalez, aka Eddie Bayo
AMDENIM-13Antonio Blanco Fernandez. A cable in early December 1960 asked for biographic data for a POA request on both Alberto Fernandez Hechevarria and Antonio Blanco Fernandez, possibly indicating that they worked closely together. [status: Speculative]
AMDENIM-14Antonio („Tony“) Cuesta Valle, aka Lobanillo, military leader of Commandos L and other militant anti-Castro organizations such as Alpha-66, the UR and the MRR.
AMDENIM-4Larry Laborde, captain of the Tejana III for many years. The vessel was used for resupply and infiltration operations until Laborde was laid off in 1962.
AMDESK-1Ricardo Anibal Morales Navarrete, aka Monkey Morales.
AMDIP-1Tony Varona, full name Manuel Antonio de Varona. He was president of the CRC (Cuban Revolutionary Council).
AMDIP-2Jesus Exposito Lorenzo [status: Unknown]
AMDIP-3Ramon Augusto Ruisanchez, aka Comandante Augusto, Cesar, and Tandi.
AMDITTOMIRR – Movimento Insurreccional de Recuperacion (Insurrectional Movement for Revolutionary Recovery). The exile group was led by Orlando Bosch.
AMDITTO-23Orlando Bosch Avila, a famous Cuban exile who led the MIRR. The MIRR engaged in a number of raids directed at the sugar industry in Cuba during 1963 in an effort to disrupt the economy. Bosch was linked to a number of bombing attacks directed at Cuba, particularly during the 1960s and 1970s.
AMDOFF-1Juan Orta, Director of the Office of the Prime Minister from 1959-1961. Described as Fidel Castro’s private secretary. A probable double agent of the US government. [status: Probable]
AMDOTAn Army team that conducts training at Eglin Air Force Base. CIA officer Norman Kiggins (possibly Bob Wall) was one of the trainers. [status: Probable]
AMECRU-1Guillermo Alonso Pujol, who was Vice-President of Cuba from 1948 to 1952 in the government of Carlos Prio. His son was among the exiles captured at the Bay of Pigs. Served as negotiator to rescue anti-Castro exiles from prison – CIA later identified him as a Cuban intelligence service agent
AMEERThe AAA, or „Triple A“, a wing of the Autentico party. Autentico led Cuba between 1944-1952, the first four years by Ramon Grau Martin and the latter four years by Carlos Prio.
AMEER-1Aureliano Sanchez Arango, head of the AAA, a wing of the Autentico party in Cuba. Sanchez was associated with Gerry Hemming and initially endorsed the anti-Castro activities of Hemming’s Interpen group.
AMEMBER-1Julio Lobo, sugar magnate in Cuba and later an exile and donor to the anti-Castro cause. Known in Cuba as „Mr. Sugar“.
AMFACET-1Umberto Figueres Gonsalez
AMFASTThe apparent core of Operation 40. A hundred selected Cubans trained to serve as counterintelligence (CI) officers and future government leaders. In a revolt such as the Bay of Pigs, their role was to penetrate inland as fast as possible and to identify and seize documents of the Castro government – and then serve as the intelligence arm of a temporary civilian government of Cuba.
AMFAST-6Jose Garcia Valdez, aka Pepe Gatillo, Pepe Iglesias and „Luciano“. 201-299287. [status: Probable]
AMFAUNANetwork of in-Cuba agents, nearly all women, providing military, political, and economic reporting, including reports on attempts to kill Castro.
AMFAUNA-1David Cabeza Coupau
AMFAUNA-13Manuel Villamanan was involved in the MRR and the AMFAUNA Operation. He was also an associate of Rolando Martinez, one of the Watergate burglars, and Alberto Beguiristain. Villamanan was questioned by the FBI in the 1970’s in the wake of Watergate.
AMFAUNA-14Key part of the AMFAUNA network and a link to the AMCOG network. Taken into custody and interrogated at length by the Cuban government during October 1963. Known as „Soledad“. [status: Unknown]
AMFAUNA-3Hortensia Orizondo Meneses
AMFOX-1Juan Falcon Tamar, aka Juan Esteban. Also known as „Montes“. [status: Probable]
AMFRAME-1Rafael Rivas Vasquez was a prominent member of Artime’s MRR from 1959 onward. He also became a highly valued propaganda asset in AMSCROLL projects in the 1960’s.
AMGABE-1Julio Gaspar Hubert Rico. Among a small group of agents supposedly asked to determine if pro-Castro Cubans or anti-Castro Cubans were involved in the killing of JFK.
AMGIRAFFEAn unknown CIA asset involved with Cuban exiles members of the Unidad Revolucionaria (UR). [status: Speculative]
AMGLAD-1Ralph Diaz Hanscom, aka Rafael Diaz Hanscom
AMGLAD-2A financially independent member of the UR, possibly Wilfredo Brito Hanscomb, a relative of Ralph Diaz Hanscomb. Both men, as well as AMBLEAK-1, were skilled in sabotage operations for the UR. [status: Speculative]
AMGLAD-3Arturo Villar, aka „Javier Miranda“ [status: Probable]
AMGLEN-1Jesus A. Valdes Cardenas.
AMGLOSSYComandos Mambises – a CIA infiltration team designed to set up an intelligence network and a resistance organization inside Cuba during 1963. Members of the team were captured on 10/21/63. [status: Probable]
AMGORILLA-1Rafael Guas Inclan, Vice President of Cuba, 1954-58, fits the description of the man described as a „rightist Cuban exile“ who had been an official in the Batista regime and a trained reporter. [status: Probable]
AMGOSH-1Contact of Margot Pena and Tony Varona, known under the alias of Frau Marsal Barbarossa Lorenzo. [status: Unknown]
AMGUPPY-1Ricardo Rafael Sardinas Sanchez.
AMHALFAction involving Uruguay in Cuba [status: Probable]
AMHALF-2German Roosen, Second Secretary at the Uruguayan embassy in Havana. Willing to assist in helping people defect for a fee. [status: Speculative]
AMHAM-1Juan Felaifel Canahan testified against Rolando Cubela and others at the 1966 criminal trial in Cuba.
AMHAWKManuel Antonio (Tony) de Varona, a leader in the Cuban Revolutionary Council and other anti-Castro exile groups.
AMHAWK-2Jesus Exposito Lorenzo. Also known as „Ralph“.
AMHAZEA post-Bay of Pigs CIA operational group consisting of exiles initially recruited for the 2506 Brigade. This brigade was the anti-Castro Cuban exiles and allies that participated in the Bay of Pigs.
AMHAZE-2523Carlos Eduardo Hernandez Sanchez, war name Eduardo Sanchez, nickname „Batea“ [status: Unknown]
AMHAZE-2524Jorge Giraud Leiva. Early exile volunteer (April 1960) for military action against Cuba, along with Carlos Hernandez (AMHAZE-2523) and Felix Rodriguez. He was asked to be part of AMWORLD. Completed full military training including maritime operations and parachute drops. In 1963 recommended by JMWAVE Operations (Morales) for AMWORLD project.
AMHELM-1Antonio Perez Quesada. His 201 number, 201-328512, matches that of AMHELM-1’s. He was a captain of vessels, a fisherman guide, and a gun runner. He was officially a CIA asset or agent for only a few months, from around February 1963 to May/June 1963.
AMHICKA paramilitary operation based on infiltrating individuals into Cuba and exfiltrating other individuals from Cuba. [status: Unknown]
AMHIMProject for the „distribution of news and information bulletins and radio newscast tapes to addresses throughout Latin America“ via AIP (Agencia de Informaciones Periodisticas).
AMHIM-2Augustin Alles Soberon, worked under AMHIM project and also for Juana Castro’s radio program.
AMHINTA branch of the DRE that conducted paramilitary and infiltration operations in Cuba. Their case officer was JMWAVE chief of operations David Morales. [status: Probable]
AMHINT-1Alberto Muller Quintana, also known as AMING-3. 201-286050.
AMHINT-19Raul Villaverde [status: Probable]
AMHINT-2Juan Manuel Salvat Roque.
AMHINT-24Victor Espinosa Hernandez aka Victor Papucho Espinosa.
AMHINT-26John Koch Gene, aka Jose R. Alsina Vazquez
AMHINT-27Manuel Baro Esteva, military coordinator for the MRR [status: Probable]
AMHINT-3Miguel A. Garcia Armengol.
AMHINT-30Albor Ruiz Salazar, used the war name „Raul“.
AMHINT-4Antonio Garcia Crew.
AMHINT-40Julio Hernandez Rojo, used the war name Cesar. Took part in Operations GORDO, PEPE and PATRICIO. Arrested in October 1962, probably due to the double agent activities of Jorge Medina Bringuier.
AMHINT-5Isidro ‚Chilo‘ Borja, early member of the DRE. He controlled the group’s boats and headed the group’s military section in 1963. Clare Boothe Luce referred to him as a boatman she called ‚Julio Fernandez‘. When CIA director Bill Colby followed up this story in October 1975, he was fired within days – with Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney taking over leadership positions in the Ford Administration.
AMHINT-53Luis Fernandez-Rocha, Secretary General of the Revolutionary Student Directorate (DRE).
AMHINT-56Juan Francisco Blanco Fernandez, participated in DRE raids on Cuba. Head of the DRE’s military section.
AMHINT-58Jose Angel Lozano y Lozano [status: Probable]
AMHINT-8Jose Lanusa (also spelled Lanuza and Llanusa) [status: Speculative]
AMHOBONewsletter in Mexico that received funds from CIA. [status: Probable]
AMICEFORDC, Frente Obrero Revolucionario Democratico Cubano. The English translation is Labor Revolutionary Democratic Front of Cuba.
AMICE-1Pascasio Linera Lopez, leader of FORDC. Also referred to as Pascasio Lineras. [status: Probable]
AMICE-14Miguel A. Diaz Isalgue, a „principal“ in the AMTRUNK operation. Used the alias „David Pardo“.
AMICE-27Dr. Nestor Moreno, a „principal“ in the AMTRUNK operation.
AMICE-3Mario Massip Masiques. Was an official of FORDC (AMICE). He was an FBI informant from at least 1960 onward, and was of interest to the CIA from this point onward as well. In addition, Massip was named Press and Propaganda Secretary for FORDC in the Cuban Revolutionary Handbook entry of March 1965. Massip was also named as an associate of Luis Conte Aguero (AMCORE-2) in a CIA document of 1966. [status: Speculative]
AMICE-31Reinaldo Pico Ramon, captured at the Bay of Pigs.
AMICE-8Unknown identity. Appeared to be in close contact with Jose Miro Cardona (AMBUD-1), who headed the CRC, and JMWAVE in 1962. [status: Unknown]
AMIGGY-1Espino Lopez Rieto, director of CRC’s radio program on WRUL.
AMING-3Alberto Muller Quintana.
AMING-4Juan Manuel Salvat Roque. Salvat was later AMHINT-2.
AMIRE-1Emilio Americo Rodriguez.
AMIRONThe Frente Revolucionario Democratico (FRD), aka Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front. The FRD Executive Committee was known as AMCIGAR.
AMJAGJusto Carrillo Hernandez
AMJAG-1Justo A. Carrillo Hernandez. Changed from AMWAIL-1 after breach of security in December 1960.
AMJAVA-4Rafael Quintero, aka Rafael Aureli Quintero Ibarbia, aka Jose M. Hernandez Valdes, aka „Omar“.
AMJOKE-1Felix Rodriguez Mendigutia
AMJUTE-1Arnesto Napoleon Rodriguez y Gonzalez. Worked with ONI in the 1930s. Father of Arnesto, Jr., an FBI informant that was in communication with Lee Oswald in New Orleans during the summer of 1963.
AMKHAN-2Carlos Martin Ahrens Temple, Western Union employee in Cuba recruited by CIA agent Bernard Barker (AMCLATTER-1).
AMKIRK-1Maria Witoski, the estranged wife of Castro’s personal physician Rene Vallejo.
AMLACE-1Luis Bastian Pinto, Brazil’s ambassador to Cuba.
AMLAKAPre-Bay of Pigs infiltration operation into Cuba. [status: Probable]
AMLAMEAn anti-Castro government net of agents based in Cuba’s Las Villas province.
AMLAME-1Arturo Sueiras, a Cuban exile with contacts in the exile community in both Miami and New York.
AMLASHRolando Cubela Secades, a Cuban doctor and official who was recruited in 1963 for an assassination attempt on Castro. Cubela stated that Castro had to be eliminated before any coup could succeed and had initially requested a high powered rifle from the CIA. The CIA balked at that and Cubela was being given a CIA poison pen on Nov 22 when news of JFK’s death broke. Suspicion remains that Cubela may have been acting as a dangle to the CIA by Castro; that is fueled by his lenient treatment after being exposed and convicted of treason.
AMLASH-2Jorge Carlos Robreno Marieguez aka „El Mago“ (The Wizard)
AMLASH-3Alberto Blanco Ramirez aka „El Loco“ (The Crazy One)
AMLAW-1Armando Hart, Cuban Minister of Education under Castro. [status: Probable]
AMLAW-3Carlos Lechuga Hevia, the diplomat at the Cuban Embassy in Mexico who became Cuba’s Ambassador to the United Nations. Had an affair with Cuban embassy secretary Silvia Duran; this affair was used by the CIA by leaning on his wife in an effort to convince Lechuga and his family to defect.
AMLEGAn FI (foreign intelligence) operation using Cuban merchant seamen.
AMLEMON-1Unknown identity, was described as a former JMWAVE agent in late October 1963. [status: Unknown]
AMLEO„An FI propaganda operation involving the exploitation of Capt. Jose Ricardo Rabel Nunez (AMLEO-3), a high-level defector who escaped from Cuba in an INRA plane on 6 December 1962.“
AMLEO-2Sister of AMLEO-3. Her name may be Dolores Rabel y Nunez. [status: Probable]
AMLEO-3Capt. Jose Ricardo Rabel Nunez, „a high-level defector who escaped from Cuba in an INRA plane on 6 December 1962.“ Probably a double agent run by the Castro government.
AMLEPTONProgram run jointly by Ted Shackley’s Miami station known as JMWAVE and James Angleton’s CI Branch. Aimed at spotting refugees in Miami area who could serve as intermediaries to reach and ultimately recruit persons in Cuba for counterintelligence purposes.
AMLIGHT-1Huber Matos Benitez, important Cuban military leader in Camaguey province until his purge in 1959 for challenging Fidel Castro. Imprisoned until the 1970s.
AMLILAC„Commando Groups“ (Comandos Mambises and others) involved in infiltrations into Cuba.
AMLINT-1Jose Gomez Rodriguez, aka „Cabezas“ [status: Probable]
AMLISP„A FI (foreign intelligence) project targeted against political and economic targets.“
AMLITAINT-1Unknown identity. Was a long time friend of Jaime Varela Canosa. [status: Unknown]
AMLOON-1Ricardo Rafael Sardinas Sanchez, aka Rafael Sardina Sanchez, active with the Cuban Association of Cane Growers and the FRD.
AMLOUT-1Raul Castro, brother of Fidel.
AMLUNCH-1Carlos A. Valdes-Fauli, an agent in Miami that reported Jack Ruby’s alleged visits to Cuba during the 1962-63 period.
AMLUNT-1Alwin Odio Tamayo.
AMLUNT-2Duney Perez Alamo, aka Dunney Perez Alamo.
AMLYRIC-1Salvador Lew, Juanita Castro’s business partner, JMWAVE media/propaganda asset. Worked with AMCORE-2, AMRAZOR-1, and AMSTRUT-2. [status: Probable]
AMMUG-1Cuban intelligence officer named Vladimir Lahera Rodriguez, who defected to U.S. via Canada in April 1964, and was interrogated about Oswald in addition to other matters.
AMNIP-1Miguel Roche Monroy – Cuban DGI defector.
AMNORM-1Higino Diaz, aka Nino Diaz.
AMNUBA-2Anibal Garcia Diaz.
AMOTTeam of some 40 Cubans trained by David Morales to be a new Cuban intelligence service once Castro had been ousted.
AMOT-11Cuban officer working in the AMOT group, reporting on the leadership of the FRD and CRC. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-110Mario del Canal, member of RESCATE and right-hand man to Jose Miro Cardona. [status: Speculative]
AMOT-119Max Lesnick Menendez, aka Max Lesnik. Lesnick ran the radio show „Cuba Despierta“ aka „Cuba Awakens“, which originated in Miami and transmitted from the Dominican Republic 1962-1963. Editor of the small Miami newspaper „Replica“, beginning in 1963 and continuing for many years afterwards.
AMOT-120He was a source of reports for JMWAVE from 1962 until at least the end of 1965. He was a Cuban exile in Miami who was described as being well known in his community, and who had international shipping interests in the Caribbean. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-14Anti-Castro agent working with JMWAVE officer David Morales in Miami. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-15CIA source. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-16This agent and AMOT-4 were the controlled penetration agents within the AMOTS and the AMFASTS. Reporting on pro- and anti-Castro activity in the Miami area. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-186Rene L. Diaz Gonzalez. AMOT-186’s 201 number was 201-726332. Carl Jenkins‘ debriefing report on Reinol Gonzalez Gonzalez in May 1979 mentioned the latter’s cousin, Rene Diaz Gonzalez, whose 201 number was 201-726332, matching AMOT-186’s.
AMOT-2Jose Joaquin Sanjenis Perdomo, also known as Joaquin Sanjenis, titular head of the AMOT organization circa 1961 prior to the Bay of Pigs landings and into 1962. His pseudonym was Carlos Blanco.
AMOT-20Mario Fontela Alfonso, a member of FORDC and the AMBUD Executive Committee during 1962-63. [status: Speculative]
AMOT-28Andres Eugenio Venegas Garcia. He was a heavy equipment operator in Cuba. His 201 number was 201-314932, matching AMOT-28’s. He was involved in the failed Operation Red Cross/Bayo-Pawley raid/Operation Tilt in June 1963. Later took part in Masferrer’s planned uprising in Haiti and was arrested by U.S. Customs in early January 1967.
AMOT-3Vincente Rafael Zorrilla Zorrilla
AMOT-31Felix Gutierrez Fernandez, deputy to AMOT leader Joaquin Sanjenis. [status: Probable]
AMOT-34Probably George Nobregas aka Jorge Nobregas, in his role as contact with members of the Staybehind Net in Cuba, particularly AMIRE-1 (Emilio Americo Rodriguez), AMRYE-1 (Tony Sforza), and AMCONCERT-1 (Francisco Wilfredo Varona). [status: Probable]
AMOT-4This agent and AMOT-16 were the controlled penetration agents within the AMOTS and the AMFASTS. Reporting on pro- and anti-Castro activity in the Miami area. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-5Pedro Diaz Lanz, also known as QDBIAS. David Morales helped exfiltrate him from Cuba in 1959, and used him as a source thereafter. Diaz had been head of the Cuban Air Force. [status: Speculative]
AMOT-53Unknown identity. An AMOT source used by the CIA Miami Station. [status: Unknown]
AMOT-6Marcos Diaz Lanz. Source used by David Morales in 1961. Among the AMOTS, known as C-5. Previously known as QDCHAR. By 1964 was member of the Minutemen using the alias „Pedro Garcia“. [status: Probable]
AMOT-87Mercedes Maria de los Angeles Meana Contina
AMOT-99Julio Fernandez Gonzalez
AMOURETTE-7Unsure of this person’s identity. Traveled during April 1957 with Cuban ambassador Emilio Nunez Portunado. [status: Probable]
AMOURETTE-9Padre Enrique Osler, aka Enrique Osle, Jesuit priest. Spiritual advisor to the youth workers JOC (Juventad Obrera Catolica) and the labor group UTC (Union Trabajadorsa Cristianos). Father Osler worked with Reynoldo Gonzalez/AMCALL-1 both before and after his capture at the farm of Amador Odio in October 1961. [status: Probable]
AMOURETTE-ALa Asociacion Cubana Pro-Democracia, based in Havana, spearheaded a wide variety of anti-Communist propaganda campaigns. [status: Probable]
AMOURETTE-BThe Catholic Youth Workers, known as the JOC or the Joventud Obrera Catolica. This group ran a radio program operation that was designed to create an active body of anti-Communists within the Cuban labor movement.
AMOURETTE-XA project of developmental propaganda activities in the television field under the direction of the Havana Station. Supported by David Phillips under alias of Michael Choaden.
AMPACAMedia outlet on Cuban news, using radio and print. [status: Probable]
AMPAD-1Source at the Havana Station up to 1960. Also known as „Rodriguez“. [status: Unknown]
AMPAL-1Alec Resnick, also known as Abe Resnick. Havana station source. Old friend of Lino Hernandez. Used the alias Joe Anderson.
AMPALMDescribed as the MDC/MRR complex circa 1960. An early effort, aided by CIA, to develop an organized anti-Castro united political front. The MDC, also known as the Christian Democrats.
AMPALM-1Oscar Echeverria y Salvat, Ministry of Commerce
AMPALM-10Angel Ros, national coordinator of the MRR
AMPALM-2Laureano Batista Falla, military chief for the MDC. JMWAVE gave US Army permission to use Batista in 1962. Batista then became head of training site in Lacombe, Louisiana, and told Garrison the trainees were going to Manuel Artime’s base in Nicaragua.
AMPALM-26Salvador Diaz Verson, a newsman who became Cuban National Police chief in 1934, and then military intelligence chief during Carlos Prio’s presidency from 1948 to 1952. After JFK was killed, he admitted that he was the source of a phony rumor that Oswald and Silvia Duran met with the Cuban ambassador to Mexico.
AMPALM-3Roberto Ortiz Batista Falla, aka „Roberto Ortiz Crabb“. [status: Unknown]
AMPALM-4Angel Fernandez Varela, paramilitary leader of the MDC/MRR complex.
AMPALM-5Jose Ignacio Agusto Rasco Bermudez, aka Jose Rasco, head of the Christian Democratic Movement (MDC). In 1961, Chicago cop/Mafia man Richard Cain served as his bodyguard.
AMPALP-1One of three net chiefs in Cuba involved in the „staybehind plan“ – the ones organizing the resistance inside Cuba after U.S. interests were forced to leave. [status: Speculative]
AMPAN-1Jose Orta. Sabotage expert in Havana, active with the MAR group during November 1960. Brother of Juan Orta, who worked as Fidel’s secretary and tried to poison Fidel. Participated in „November 30th Group“ bombings of electrical plants that blacked out one fifth of Havana for almost a full day during November, 1960. [status: Unknown]
AMPAN-2Military coordinator and treasurer Roberto Vale, also known as Roberto Valdez and Roberto Suarez de Cardenas. A net chief inside Cuba during 1960; active with MRP and Comandos L, and provided financial assistance to groups. Defected to US on 3/21/61, days before the Bay of Pigs. [status: Probable]
AMPAN-22Jose Ignacio Zarraga Diez-Muro
AMPAN-4Eladio Bas Trespalacios. AMPAN-4’s boat was used to exfiltrate notable anti-Castro Cubans figures, such as Manuel Ray and Ramon Padilla Perez, from Cuba to the United States. [status: Speculative]
AMPANIC-1Jorge Eduardo Mallo Cardisi
AMPANIC-13Armando Escoto Aloy, captured during air drop and executed on April 20, 1961.
AMPANIC-14Juan de Jesus Arbelo Zabaleta. A communications trainer.
AMPANIC-2Antonio Santiago Ruiz
AMPANIC-5A member of the Cuban-based insurrection team for the Bay of Pigs. [status: Unknown]
AMPANIC-6A Cuban-based spotter informing CIA on individuals and groups who were candidates for an insurrection against Castro both before and after the Bay of Pigs. [status: Unknown]
AMPANIC-7Emilio Adolfo Rivero Caro, also known as „Brand“ and „Pancho“. He was arrested in April 1961 and spent many years in Cuban prison.
AMPANIC-9Wilfredo Brito [status: Unknown]
AMPARCH-1Warren E. Frank, AKA Edward D. Knapman
AMPASSAlberto Roque Muller
AMPATRINMichael „Jack“ Malone, Vice President of Czarnikow-Rionda, a major sugar company with its headquarters in New York City. Malone was an important CIA and FBI informant.
AMPATROLAMPATROL was an operation created in 1959-1960 with Edward Tichborn (aka Henry Preston Lopez) hired by the CIA as a „political organizer“ to bring together the most promising anti-Castro groups. [status: Probable]
AMPATROL-1Jose Antonio Gomez Perez.
AMPHODARCHA net of agents providing coverage of political activities at the University of Havana led by case officer Ross Crozier who used the pseudonym Arthur G. Vaivada.
AMPOON-1Manuel Vega Perez, pseudonym „Marcos“. High ranking Cuban intelligence official in Mexico City in late 1963.
AMPORTFRD Executive Committee; it was known as AMCIGAR until November 1960.
AMPUG-1Alfredo Izaguirre Revoi aka Alfredo Izaguirre de la Riva, Alfredo Izaguirre Rivas. Also used the alias Luis Ravelo. 201-273550.
AMQUACKChe Guevera, guerrilla leader and minister in Castro’s Cuba, killed in Bolivia in 1968. Aka AMQUACK-1.
AMQUIP-1Felipe Vidal Santiago [status: Probable]
AMRANGEA foreign intelligence project targeting Fidel Castro and other high-level officials in the Ministry of Industry.
AMRASPFRD (Democratic Revolutionary Front). This crypt was changed in December 1960 for security reasons.
AMRAYON-4Cecilio Argelio Martinez, member or ally of the 30th of November Movement
AMRAZOR-1WAVE source and „weather vane“ in the Miami Cuban community in the 60s. [status: Probable]
AMRAZZ-1Joaquin Godoy y Solis. Informant, a leader within the MRP, associate of Antonio Veciana. Used as a penetration inside the MRP/Alpha-66/November 30 alliance.
AMRIPE-2Involved in the attempt to exfiltrate AMCANOE-3 from Cuba on 11/22/63. Sent pouch to Mexico City on 11/21/63. [status: Unknown]
AMRIPE-3Raul Roa Kouri. In 1963, he was the Cuban ambassador to Brazil, son of Cuban foreign minister Raul Roa Garcia. Also known as Raulito Roa.
AMRODCIA program designed to split the Castro regime, with a special focus on the Soviet-aligned Vice Minister of Defense Joaquin Ordoqui. One operation planted false papers on Cuban Cultural Attache Teresa Proenza to make it look like Ordoqui was a CIA agent who had betrayed the Soviet missile buildup in Cuba to the Americans.
AMRUG-5Victor Paneque Batista, aka Comandante Diego Rene Ricardo. MIRR coordinator answering to AMDITTO-23/Orlando Bosch during early sixties. Sent by his uncle, AMPALM-2/Laureano Batista, to set up the training camp in Lacombe, Louisiana in 1963.
AMRUNG-1Rogelio Gonzalez y Corso, code name „Francisco“. Name also referred to as Corzo and Corcho. Head of the internal resistance in Cuba until his capture in March 1961.
AMRYE-1Anthony “Tony” Sforza
AMSAIL-1Carlos Fernandez Trujillo
AMSALON-1Unknown identity, was described as one of „several key AMWORLDERs“ (along with AMHINT-27, AMYUM-29) in a June 1964 CIA cable. [status: Unknown]
AMSANTAJoint FBI/CIA program to place willing FPCC members into Cuba to collect intelligence.
AMSCROLLUR, also known as Unidad Revolucionaria. Its organizing membership was described as impatient former members of the MRR, well-educated and with the skills needed to overthrow a government.
AMSERF-1Francisco (Frank) Bartes.
AMSESS-1Oscar Concepcion Mendoza
AMSEVER-2Double agent in Mexico City. Referred to as a „contract agent“ and a „marginal agent“. [status: Unknown]
AMSEVER-3Manuel Fernando Avila Aguirre, a double agent.
AMSHADY-1„Havana Rose“, also known as Pepita Riera, a Cuban writer and broadcaster, who had a biweekly show on WMIE during 1963 where she discussed Cuban G-2 agents and informers.
AMSHALE-1Antonia Veciana, leader of Cuban exile group ALPHA-66. Veciana told HSCA investigator Gaeton Fonzi that he had worked with a „Maurice Bishop“ who Fonzi came to believe was CIA officer David Phillips. Also known as Victor Fernandez, Victor Orcarlos.
AMSIGH-2Clemente Inclan Werner, prisoner released in 1970 and then used as intermediary between the Cuban government and imprisoned anti-Castro agents.
AMSKIRLS-1Andres Zayas, aka „Justo“, a UR leader inside Cuba.
AMSLAW-1Pedro Julio Martinez Fraga y Fernandez
AMSLOUCH-1Cuban businessman, trained in use of wireless telegraphy communications. Worked with CIA, may have become a double agent for Cuban intelligence. [status: Unknown]
AMSMILE-1Ernesto Betancourt was a supporter and later influential staunch critic of Fidel Castro that worked for the Organization of American States.
AMSNAP-3Eugenio Rolando Martinez, one of the Watergate burglars.
AMSOURAn operation based in Pinar del Rio province, utilizing the American rancher Lawrence K. Lunt. Collection of military, political and economic intelligence. [status: Probable]
AMSOUR-1Lawrence Kirby Lunt.
AMSOUR-2Juan Gomez Blanco, working with Larry Lunt in Pinar del Rio, Cuba in the early 1960s. [status: Speculative]
AMSPELLThe Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil, or DRE (Cuban Student Directorate). DRE delegate Carlos Bringuier had the famous altercation with Lee Oswald in New Orleans in the summer of 1963, and DRE members quickly spread information about Oswald after JFK’s assassination. Ray Rocca wrote in 1967 that DRE was „initially set up as a „psych war outfit“: https://www.archives.gov/files/research/jfk/releases/104-10013-10387.pdf
AMSPICE-1Geraldine Shamma de Carrera aka Geraldine Shamman de Carrera, close colleague of Manuel Artime in 1960.
AMSPILLProject centered around a Cuban intelligence source (AMSPILL-1) who provided political and economic intelligence. The intelligence AMSPILL-1 provided „…dealt with Soviet personnel activity, Cuban military activity, shipping and health-related information.“
AMSPRAWL-2A male official used by Mexico City Station to penetrate G-2 operations (Cuban Intelligence apparatus in Mexico) with „good access to Cuban Embassy personnel in Mexico City.“ [status: Probable]
AMSTALK-1Miguel Angel Diaz Isalgue
AMSTET-1Jose Antonio „Nico“ Garcia Lara, commercial attache in the Cuban embassy during 1962-63. A source of great value on the defection and recruitment front regarding Cubans.
AMSTOKE-1Lucas Roig, aka Pedro Lucas Roig Ortega, assistant commercial attache at the Cuban embassy in Mexico City who defected during June 1962. [status: Probable]
AMSTOW-1Unknown identity. Referred to in one CIA document as „Filipe.“ Was the principal agent of the AMRYE-1 (Tony Sforza) stay behind net in Cuba in 1961. [status: Unknown]
AMSTRUTThe operation and net of assets involved in the defection and recruitment of AMSTRUT-2 and, subsequently, her anti-Castro radio broadcasts.
AMSTRUT-2Juana de la Caridad Castro Ruz, sister of Fidel and Raul, who ran a radio program against her brothers‘ regime.
AMSTUFF-1Unknown identity. Associated with AMSTOW-1. Wrote a report following the arrest of Francisco Wilfredo Varona Alonso, AKA „Pancho,“ AKA „Paco,“ (AMCONCERT-1), in October 1961. [status: Unknown]
AMSUPER-1Dimas Domingo Figueredo Fernandez, CRC representative in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
AMSWEEPA foreign intelligence operation concerned with the collection of Cuban military and political information via shortwave and OWVL (one way voice link). AMSWEEP-1 was Jose Pujol Roca and his wife was Maria Caridad Aurelia Buch Y Rodriguez.
AMSWIRL-1Customs agent Cesar Diosdado.
AMTABBYA major paramilitary operation consisting of numerous sabotage operations against on-island targets. At least some of these operations were reviewed and approved by the Special Group (Augmented).
AMTABBY-15Miguel Angel Orozco Crespo [status: Probable]
AMTABBY-23Pedro Vera Ortiz [status: Probable]
AMTABBY-27A valuable source for information on AMTABBY.
AMTAFFY-1Unknown identity. Possibly a female journalist/reporter. [status: Unknown]
AMTAUPA CIA mole operation inside JURE, focusing on anti-CIA activities. [status: Probable]
AMTAUP-1Dr. Ernesto Alanis Angulo. [status: Probable]
AMTAUP-10Juan Bautista Perez Luis, chief gardener at the naval base in Cuba. Arrested as part of an CIA espionage net in 1965.
AMTAUP-2Armando Alanis Angulo, personnel chief of JURE and a penetration agent of the CIA. [status: Probable]
AMTEASE-1Heriberto Corona Mendez, the CRC representative in Panama. Provided support to AMBARBS.
AMTHIGHA political action/propaganda operation using WRUL – the radio station owned by the Mormon Church – to sponsor anti-Castro broadcasts aimed at Cuba.
AMTHRILL-1Julio Kouri Barreto, diplomat and brother-in-law of Cuban foreign minister Raul Roa Garcia. [status: Probable]
AMTHUGFidel Castro, the Cuban leader who took power in 1959 and whose demise the U.S. began unsuccessfully plotting soon thereafter. 201-97456.
AMTIKI-1Believed to be Juan A. Paula Baez. The Official History of the Bay of Pigs Operation states that his true name was Manuel F. Goudie.
AMTOAD-1Julian Arias Prado, 1960 defector from Cuba after a stint as consul at the embassy in Los Angeles. Lee Oswald visited this embassy during Arias‘ stint while stationed at EL Toro in 1959.
AMTORRIDOne of the two CIA assault teams that Bill Harvey sent into Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. [status: Probable]
AMTOUT-1An SAS/EDE asset in New York City. [status: Unknown]
AMTRIGON-1Argimiro Fonseca Fernandez, aka Argimino Fonseca Fernandez.
AMTRIGON-2Unknown identity, was the team leader of the infiltration team aboard the Villaro vessel in May 1962. In 1963 AMTRIGON-2 was working for Alberto Fernandez Hechevarria (AMDENIM-1). [status: Unknown]
AMTRIGON-8Miguel de los Santos Delgado Martinez, anti-Castro Cuban and member of the Villaro crew.
AMTRUNKOperation for military overthrow of Castro’s government in 1963, promoted within White House circles but distrusted by CIA. Also known as Plan Leonardo.
AMTRUNK-1George Volsky aka Jorge Volsky. His name was originally Jerzy Stanislaw Ajbuszyc when he served in the Polish military under the British operational command during World War II. Volsky was his grandmother’s name.
AMTRUNK-10Ramon Tomas Guin Diaz.
AMTRUNK-11Carlos Pedraza Aguilar.
AMTRUNK-19Jose Alberto Semidey Isalgue, cousin of Miguel Diaz Isalgue (AMICE-14/AMSTALK-1), and Cubana pilot. [status: Probable]
AMTRUNK-2Enrique Cayado Rivera, aka Enrique Javier Cavado Rivera
AMTRUNK-3Antonio Garcia Perez.
AMTRUNK-4A fisherman who defected to the US during Feb. 1963 and was used as a maritime guide. Identity unknown. [status: Unknown]
AMTRUNK-7A coastal guide with extensive maritime and weapons training. Identity unknown. [status: Unknown]
AMTRUNK-9Modesto Orlando Orozco Basulto.
AMTURVYAn operation „designed for the purpose of conducting sabotage operations against Cuba. It consisted of a net of 13 AMTURVY assets whose primary function, apart from sabotage, was the preparation of target studies and analysis of sabotage operations.“
AMTURVY-1Arturo Maria Jesus Varona Alonso.
AMTURVY-13Mario Salabarria Aguiar.
AMTURVY-4Enrique Diaz Fernandez.
AMULARThe most likely candidate is David Morales, who at least twice delivered messages between Cuba to William Pawley (QDDALE) and the CIA station in Miami in 1960. [status: Speculative]
AMULLA-1Owner of Havana TV station. Probably Goar Mestre, owner of CMQ TV. [status: Probable]
AMUPAS-1Viola June Cobb, who informed for CIA under crypt AMUPAS-1 while working for Castro, and played a role in the Elena Garro de Paz story, with Mexican crypt LICOOKY-1.
AMWAIL-1Justo Carrillo Hernandez, leader of Agrupacion Montecristi and a founding member of the Frente Civico Revolucionario (FRD), forerunner of the CRC.
AMWAIL-3Jose Joaquin Sanjenis Perdomo, also known as Joaquin Sanjenis. He also had the cryptonym of AMOT-2, and was the leader of the AMOTs.
AMWAIL-5Manuel F. Goudie, also known as Juan Paula/AMTIKI-1.
AMWARMA foreign intelligence operation that targeted Cubana Airlines and provided intelligence on travelers, negotiations, flight traffic, scheduled flights, and personnel at Rancho Boyeros Airport in Cuba.
AMWARM-1An on-island asset that investigated whether Castro played any role in the JFK assassination as well as any plots to assassinate Castro. A civilian aviation expert who is affiliated with the Ministry of Transportation and who has been trained for intelligence work. [status: Unknown]
AMWASP-1Gilberto R. Alemany, Cuban trade counsellor in Tokyo, who defected to the U.S. in August, 1965.
AMWAX-1Oscar Fernandez Viega
AMWEECzech sources and entities in Cuba. [status: Probable]
AMWEE-1Bohumil Jirkal, chauffeur at Czech Embassy, Mexico City, in 1963. [status: Speculative]
AMWEE-2Zbynek Samonil [status: Probable]
AMWHIP-1Carlos Tepedino Gonzalez, a Cuban exile living in the U.S. who was a „long-time friend“ of Rolando Cubela (AMLASH). AMWHIP-1 arranged the 1961 meeting between a CIA case officer and Cubela, who was recruited to attempt to assassinate Fidel Castro.
AMWOO-1Jose Enrique Dausa Alvarez. Member of the Directional Committee of the MRR. [status: Probable]
AMWORD-3Mario Seiglie Montoro, interim secretary general of the Unidad Revolucionaria (AMSCROLL) at the time of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
AMWORLDAlso known as Second Naval Guerilla. Plan for offensive military operations against Cuba from offshore, led by Manuel Artime (AMBIDDY-1). Based at Monkey Point in Nicaragua.
AMWORLD-2Friend of Orlando Piedra, a leading Batistiano. [status: Unknown]
AMWORM-1Miguel Angel Leon, aka Miguel de Leon Rojas, aka „Cuco“, former Cuban senator and aide to Manuel Artime. Used the alias of Domingo Beltard when he helped Tony Sforza and other CIA officers escape from Cuba in the wake of the Bay of Pigs
AMWORRY-1Appears to be another cryptonym for Raul Roa, Jr., the Cuban Ambassador to Brazil, during the fall of 1963.
AMYUMMRR – Revolutionary Recovery Movement.
AMYUM-1Lino Bernabe Fernandez Martinez, psychiatrist from Sagua la Grande and MRR leader outside of Cuba. Also known as Ojeda.
AMYUM-19Cesar Baro Esteva. Until he had a falling out with Manuel Artime/AMBIDDY-1, Baro was the number three man on the AMWORLD project. He had previously been head of the MRR.
GPCrypts related to JFK, including JFK’s alleged assassin.
GPAZUREEnno Hobbing, head of the Latin American Information Center in New York. He also worked for the CIA and answered to officer Albert Haney. [status: Probable]
GPBEFITKeith Botsford, a case officer with the Congress for Cultural Freedom. [status: Probable]
GPFLOORLee Harvey Oswald (post-assassination designation). It is usually used as a „slug“ to describe the contents of a memo as „Oswald-related“.
GPFOCUSRobert F. Kennedy, JFK’s brother and Attorney General in the JFK administration.
GPLOGICLyndon B. Johnson
GPPHOTOGeneral Maxwell Taylor, chair of the Cuba study group after the Bay of Pigs and later the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
HT??? [status: Unknown]
HTAUTOMATCamera system for project Oxcart, the CIA’s SR-71 program and U-2 photography. James McCord, CIA’s Security Research Staff officer and a Watergate burglar, was part of this project. [status: Probable]
HTLINGUALCIA mail opening and mail cover program, operated from 1952 to 1973. It was a joint operation of the CI Staff and the Deputy Director of Security/Investigations and Operational Support. The mail of Lee Harvey Oswald while in the USSR was among the targets of this program.
HTPLUMEThe nation of Panama.
JMAll locations and people related to the program challenging the Cuban government led by Fidel Castro. [status: Probable]
JMADDRetalhuleu Air Base, used for air training at the time of the Bay of Pigs. Also known as Rayo Base or as MADD.
JMARCOverall Cuban operations, including the Bay of Pigs project, before this cryptonym became compromised in December 1960. It was then changed to JMATE.
JMASHForward operating base – CIA, Miami. Original name for JMWAVE. JMASH used until December 1960, when a security compromise forced change in name.
JMATEOverall Cuban operations, including the Bay of Pigs project. Known as JMARC before this cryptonym became compromised in December 1960, and then became JMATE. Used for Cuban operations well into 1962.
JMBARCIA maritime covert operations group located at Key West, Florida. [status: Probable]
JMBELLA special channel used primarily for JMWAVE and Headquarters communications but also for communications with other JM sites. [status: Probable]
JMBLUGJohn S Peurifoy was appointed by President Truman to serve as the Ambassador of Guatemala, he occupied the post during the 1954 overthrow of Guatemala by CIA supported military opposition forces.
JMCLEARAir Operations during the Bay of Pigs. [status: Probable]
JMCLIPPERThe National Catholic Welfare Conference (1919-66), which then became the US Catholic Conference. (1966-2001). In 2001, it merged with the National Conference of Catholic Bishops – now the two groups are the US Conference of Catholic Bishops. [status: Probable]
JMCLOSETProgram working with potential allies who are using embassies as sanctuary. [status: Speculative]
JMDUSKThe security division within JMWAVE. There was a portion of the JMWAVE grounds that was reserved for the buildings of these officers. They had their own separate payroll. They had the ability to „backstop“ (provide cover) and provide clearance to classified information. [status: Speculative]
JMFIGThe Opa-locka air station, where Cuban immigrants were screened at the Caribbean Admissions Center prior to entry into the United States.
JMFURYThe airstrike designed to take out Castro’s air force at the outset of the Bay of Pigs invasion.
JMGINCuban travel surveillance activities [status: Probable]
JMGOLDA JMWAVE unit within the CIA base in Havana itself. This base was forced to disband when diplomatic relations between the US and Cuba ceased in January 1961. [status: Probable]
JMHARPSome of these dissidents were held as „prisoners“ after a revolt within the Guatemalan Army during November 1960. Another memo describes them as CRC expeditionary force „detainees“ – anti-Castro exiles at foreign bases that could not join the Bay of Pigs invasion for military disciplinary reasons. These detainees broke into the AMOT and CRC intelligence files in the wake of the Bay of Pigs. [status: Probable]
JMHOPEA radio station within range of Havana, probably Radio Swan, based on one of the Swan Islands near Cuba. [status: Probable]
JMMOVEThe Belle Chasse Louisiana Ammunition Dump. A CIA controlled training camp from Feb-April 1961 used for special explosives and underwater training for Cuban exiles involved in the Bay of Pigs landing.
JMNETRouting indicator for the Latin American Division. It may refer to Miami. [status: Probable]
JMPALMOperational and intelligence information concerning Haitian exile politics and the Haitian political situation. Operations were based at the JMWAVE station.
JMRAKEProgram to exploit news on Cuba. [status: Probable]
JMRIMMCommunications facility in the Miami area. [status: Probable]
JMRYEFort Gulick in the Panama Canal Zone, used to train the initial volunteer group of anti-Castro Cuban exiles prior to the establishment of the infantry training camp in Guatemala. [status: Probable]
JMSPURInvestigation of traces (or „spoor“) of former programs or records that for political reasons (Kennedy assassination, Watergate) became extremely sensitive. [status: Probable]
JMTIDEStrike base for the Bay of Pigs at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua.
JMTRAVInfantry training base in Guatemala used for the Bay of Pigs invasion.
JMTRAXBase in Guatemala to train the soldiers for the Bay of Pigs.
JMWAVECIA Station in Miami, training facility for anti-Cuban operations, existing on what is now the site of the Miami Zoo.
JMZIPLatin American Division routing indicator.
KUDivisions of the CIA itself.
KUCAGECIA Psychological and Paramilitary Operations Staff.
KUCLUBCIA Office of Communications.
KUDESKCounter Intelligence (CI) division of CIA.
KUDOVEClandestine services of CIA.
KUFULGENTRelated to DTDORIC [status: Unknown]
KUGOWNPsychological and Paramilitary Staff. Related to Operation KUGOWN, a propaganda effort designed to inform on the extent communism had infiltrated Guatemala following the 1954 overthrow. KUGOWN was later changed to KUWOLF.
KUHOOKCIA Paramilitary Operations Staff
KUJAZZThe CIA Office of National Estimates.
KUJUMPOffice of Operations (OO)
KULOOKDomestic Collections Division
KUMONKCIA Office of Political Analysis (OPA).
KUPALMSystem of electronic records, including a biographic registry.
KURIOTCIA Technical Services Division (TSD).
KUROARTraining Branch. [status: Probable]
KUSODACIA Office of Security.
KUTUBEForeign Intelligence (FI) division of CIA.
KUTUBE/DCIA „Staff D“ responsible for SIGINT (Signals Intelligence – electronic intercepts), where the ZR/RIFLE „executive action“ (assassination) program was housed.
KUWOLFPsychological and Paramilitary Staff. Replaced the earlier name, KUGOWN.
LCA program or operation designed to separate truth from falsity. [status: Speculative]
LCFLUTTERPolygraph („lie detector“) testing, sometimes referred to simply as „FLUTTER“.
LCHARVESTLCHARVEST (TPFAST, TPTERRY, VLVIGOR) involved operations against Peoples Republic of China (PRC) scientists and efforts to monitor PRC state technology.
LCIMPROVECounter-espionage involving Soviet intelligence services, worldwide.
LCPANGSThe nation of Costa Rica.
LCPIPITProgram utilizing journalists as informants or sources, based in Paris. The pipit is a songbird that blends in easily with its environment. [status: Probable]
LIOperations, organizations, and individuals related to Mexico City.
LIANCHORA program to create an Agency-controlled „leftist“ press service to distribute political articles in Latin American countries.
LIBIGHTMail opening operation in Mexico City, with Soviet and/or Cuban targets.
LIBRIFORMA CIA source of unique information regarding the Czechoslovakian Embassy located in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
LICALLAOne of three photo surveillance sites under the LIEMPTY umbrella project. LILYRIC was an apartment which provided a view of the back of the Soviet Embassy compound in Mexico City. The other two photo sites were LIMITED and LILYRIC.
LICAPERProposed joint installation during 1963-64 with the Mexican Ministry of Interior, Federal Security Service (DFS), approved in principle by Headquarters but not implemented because for local security and economic reasons in March 1964.
LICASA-1An agent in Mexico City whose production was rated „among the most valuable“. His sources were from the Soviet Bloc, with a large portion from Cuba. He worked with the station from roughly 1958 to 1969. [status: Unknown]
LICHANT-1Unwitting asset Manuel Calvillo, who the HSCA failed to locate in its attempt to corroborate Elena Garro de Paz’s story regarding Oswald in Mexico City.
LICHAP-1Involved in creating false visas. [status: Unknown]
LICHEWLeo C. Redlich, US citizen and professor at the University of Mexico, a contract agent serving as the outside case officer between 1962-1968 for covert action projects LINLUCK and LICOAX among others.
LICOAXStudent group in Mexico City, used by Agency for political action and intelligence. [status: Unknown]
LICOOKY-1Viola June Cobb, who informed for CIA under crypt AMUPAS-1 while working for Castro. As LICOOKY-1 in Mexico, involved in both the FPCC campaign and monitoring Mexican playwright Elena Garro de Paz. Used Clarinda E. Sharp when corresponding with FPCC and Guatemalan friends.
LICOOLMicrophone/transmitters. Used at the Soviet embassy and the Cuban embassy. Last installation was in 1960 with the Soviets, and 1961 with the Cubans. After that point, the decision was made to prepare a separate project for each audio installation.
LICOWL-1A CIA double agent employed against the Soviets in Mexico City who owned a store near the Soviet Embassy. [status: Probable]
LICOZY-3Steve Kenin, or Kenin’s twin brother Larry. Both men were motorcyclists in Mexico City. At least one of them allegedly met Lee Oswald and their name is misspelled in documents as „Kennan“ or „Keenan“. [status: Speculative]
LICOZY-5Operator of the Mundus Tours company in Mexico. [status: Unknown]
LICRAB-1A still unidentified law student, whose primary task was to wiretap KGB officer Konstantinov. According to Mexico City station monitor Boris Tarasoff, Sergey Konstantinov may have the Soviet officer who allegedly spoke to Lee Oswald on 9/28/63, because he was one of the two Soviet embassy officers who had a strong command of English. [status: Unknown]
LICUFF-1A Soviet access agent whose cryptonym was assigned on 11/4/63. This is possibly Ricardo Poery Cervantes, a leftist journalist in Mexico. [status: Probable]
LIELEGANTRodolfo Echeverria, Mexican lawyer and Presidential adviser in charge of the Mexican DFS (Treasury Dept. intelligence), father of President Luis Echeverria. Both men played a role in the LIENVOY telephone tap operation. [status: Probable]
LIELOPEProject which supported and directed the activities of those who traveled to the United States from Mexico who were engaged in trade union activities.
LIEMBRACEA Mexico City-based surveillance project, under the umbrella LIPSTICK project. LIEMBRACE included a surveillance team, a radio repairman, and a phototruck team.
LIEMBRACE-11Yolanda del Valle Gonzalez, engaged to LIEMBRACE-4.
LIEMBRACE-4This surveillance agent was caught up in the fracas of the 1968 attack on the Mexico City students. [status: Unknown]
LIEMPTYUmbrella surveillance project in Mexico City, formerly code-named LIPSTICK. Included a variety of sub-projects under it.
LIEMPTY-1Ramon Joseph Alvarez aka Raymond Gerende, who ran the three photographic basehouses focused on the Soviet compound in Mexico City.
LIEMPTY-14LILYRIC surveillance was run by a meticulous woman known as LIEMPTY-14. LIEMPTY-14’s daily logs and reports were reportedly „detailed and complete”. LILYRIC provided the best vantage point for photos of visitors, as it was aimed at the Soviet embassy front gate. lIEMPTY-14’s identity is unknown.
LIEMPTY-19Hester Roos De Alvarez
LIEMPTY-2Juan Nepomuseno Frias Ramirez, using the pseudonym of Oliver Scantling and the cryptonym of LIEMPTY-2 in Mexico City.
LIEMPTY-3This agent spent time trying to recruit AEIMPULSE to defect and to set up a listening post on Soviet officials Kazantsev and Konstantinov in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
LIEMPTY-5Sister of Raymond Gerende. She assisted with the processing of the photographic take in Mexico City in her husband’s darkroom during the early sixties. [status: Unknown]
LIEMPTY-6LIMITED was the best of the three surveillance sites focused on the Soviet compound, as it was fixed on both the vehicle entrance and the pedestrian entrance. Run by an older man known as LIEMPTY-6 who lived in the basehouse with his family, the LIMITED take yielded no pictures of Oswald. LIEMPTY-6’s identity is unknown.
LIEMPTY-9She was the head of the LILYRIC photosurveillance basehouse focusing on the Soviet compound in Mexico City. Her name is unknown. [status: Unknown]
LIENTRAPMobile surveillance photo truck with several support agents used to track Soviet operatives in Mexico City.
LIENVOYCIA telephone tapping program in Mexico City, targeting Cuban and Soviet embassies and run in conjunction with the Mexican DFS. Netted phone calls allegedy of Oswald. See also LIFEAT.
LIENVOY-16Anita Tarasoff. When it was discovered that her husband, transcriber Boris Tarasoff, knew Russian and English but virtually no Spanish, his wife was pressed into service to help him. [status: Speculative]
LIENVOY-2Luis Echeverria Alvarez – described as „a Mexican supervisor field agent“, #4 in the command flowchart, and right under intercept center chief and CIA officer Charles Flick [status: Probable]
LIERODECIA photosurveillance and tapping operation targeting the Cuban embassy compound in Mexico City (see refs for confusion on this). It is the LIERODE operation which allegedly failed to obtain photos of Oswald due to a camera breakdown.
LIEVICTMURO, a right-wing Catholic student group in Mexico. This program supported a national Catholic student group that was anticommunist; it considered allying with the PRI (the Mexican governing party); the president’s group met biweekly with a station officer. [status: Probable]
LIFEATCIA telephone tapping program on a number of phone lines in Mexico City, collecting information on a variety of targets, including home phone lines of Soviet officers, the Yugoslav Embassy, and more. Project grew to include TELEX systems and microphone placements. See also LIENVOY.
LIFEUD-1Unidentified individual who retired from the LIFEAT program in 1963, played a valuable role in protecting LIFEAT. [status: Unknown]
LIFEUD-2Lineman for the Mexico City telephone company. [status: Unknown]
LIFEUD-22Alberto Cesar Rodriguez Gallego, the main photographer in the LIERODE basehouse covering the Cuban embassy in Mexico City.
LIFIREA joint program with the Mexican security forces. LIFIRE obtained passenger manifests of all commercial flights, passport photographs of travelers to Cuba, and could sometimes even follow a passenger to the hotel with their surveillance truck.
LIFIZZLIFIZZ put out various publications. One of them was Espejo magazine, a right-wing weekly periodical in Mexico that received CIA funding. [status: Probable]
LIGAFFA covert anti-communist propaganda program in Mexico in 1963, using a variety of legal and illegal tactics. [status: Probable]
LIHABITA base used to conduct photographic surveillance targeting the Soviet allied Czechoslovakian Embassy in Mexico City.
LIHUFFAn anti-communist organization in Mexico with emphasis on students, economics, civil pressure and propaganda. Financed by the Mexico City station.
LIHUFF-1Alfonso Rudolph Wichtrich, Executive VP, American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico. The cut-out for LIHUFF-2.
LIJERSEYPhysical surveillance team operating in Mexico City. Renamed LIRICE in 1962.
LIKAYAK-2Ran a postal intercept operation in Mexico City with 22 agents between 1957 to 1969.
LILINKAn operation in Mexico City to provide non-official cover for CIA officers with infra-red communications system to the CIA station in the Embassy.
LILISPA funding mechanism for covert action projects in Mexico.
LILYRICOne of three photo surveillance sites under the LIEMPTY umbrella project, the only one of the three that photographed license plates of all vehicles entering the compound. LILYRIC was a 3rd story apartment across the street from the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, south of the LIMITED installation. The other two photo sites were LIMITED and LICALLA.
LIMASK-1Long-time agent in Mexico City. Answered to AMSUPER-1 in the Gyrose Debriefing Unit. Member of AMBUD. [status: Unknown]
LIMERICKSoviet Embassy in Mexico City.
LIMESAExtremely sensitive monitoring operation targeting Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, run by FI/D.
LIMEWGeorge Munro, often used the psuedonym Jeremy Benadum. An ex-FBI agent that was one of Mexico City CIA station chief Win Scott’s chief lieutenants. Munro helped run the LITEMPO program. [status: Probable]
LIMITEDOne of three photo surveillance sites under the LIEMPTY umbrella project. LIMITED was a fixed site right across the street from the front gate of the Soviet Embassy. The other two photo sites were LILYRIC and LICALLA.
LIMOTORAn „eyes and ears“ project using American students at Mexico City universities to observe the operations of the Soviet intelligence service and to determine which American students were Soviet targets.
LIMUDMail intercept operation in Mexico.
LIMUSTA collection of four housing units used in the LIMESA project as part of a sensitive FI/D operation. One of these units housed the LICALLA photographic surveillance on the Soviet embassy.
LINEB-1Double agent working for the CIA and the FBI as well as the USSR. Based in Mexico City, but would travel within the United States. Identity is unknown. [status: Unknown]
LINILE-1One of the known five double agents working for the Mexico City station in 1963. [status: Unknown]
LINLUCKCarlos Manuel Pellecer
LINOODLEPress placement and publications program in Mexico City.
LIONIONPhotosurveillance project targeting Cuban Embassy in Mexico City, also referred to as LIERODE. The purported failure of the LIONION installation to capture a picture of Lee Oswald in late September 1963 was a matter of concern and some disbelief in the HSCA’s investigation.
LIONION-1Alberto Rodriguez Gallego, part of LIONION photography project targeting Cuban embassy.
LIONION-2The mother of LIONION-1. She assisted him in caretaking the technical surveillance operation against the Cuban embassy in Mexico City.
LIOOZE-1Pablo Agustin Aldama Acosta, chief of Cuban intelligence in Mexico, and a double agent.
LIOSAGECarl Migdail, US News and World Report staffer. Friend of David Phillips and Mexico City station chief Win Scott.
LIOVAL-1John Emil Blankeneagel, American friend of Soviet consul Pavel Yatskov in Mexico City.
LIPAWNAudio surveillance on Soviets in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
LIPLUGListening post in Mexico City aimed at two Soviets, GRU officer Vadim Aleksandrovich Sheynok and Yuriy Mikhaylov.
LIPSTICKThis Mexico City-based project was an „umbrella type project…consisted of multiline phone taps, three photographic sites, a mobile surveillance team and a mail intercept operation.“ Under this project were LIMITED, LILYRIC, and LICALLA, LIEMBRACE, LIENTRAP, and possibly other projects. Renamed LIEMPTY.
LIPSTICK-20The initial cryptonym for Raymond Joseph Alvarez Durant aka Raymond H. Gerende, assigned in the 1950s. He later became LIEMPTY-1.
LIQUIFIER-7Student leader with LIEVICT and ZRAFRAID in 1963 in Mexico City. Sometimes referred to as simply LIQUIFIER. [status: Probable]
LIRAMAGustavo Diaz Ordaz, president of Mexico from 1964-1970.
LIRAVINEMid-1960s project „for the purpose of consolidating into one administrative group a number of active Cuban informants,“. Most productive were the LITAMILs and the LITAINTs.
LIREAMDialogos, a left wing intellectual publication funded by the CIA in the 1960s. The editor was known in the CIA as Edward Tichborn – his true name was Henry Lopez.
LIRICESurveillance project targeting the Communist Party in Mexico City. Some of its agents were arrested and their CIA case officer detained by the Mexican Security Service and subsequently allowed to leave the country. Originally named LIJERSEY.
LIRINGStudy and recruitment of Cuban officers working at the Cuban embassy compound in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
LIRING-1Ramiro Jesus Abreu Quintana. Debriefed the triple agent AMKNOB-1 in 1966, during the trial of Rolando Cubela. Third Secretary in the Cuban Embassy in Mexico in the mid-60s. [status: Probable]
LIRING-10Reynaldo Cepeda, Cuban intelligence officer in Mexico City.
LIRING-3Carlos Jurado-Delmar, also known as Carlos Jurado J. Delmar and Carlos Delmar Jurado. Shortly after Garrison’s JFK investigation became public in early 1967, Jurado allegedly began having sexual relations with Silvia Duran, and she allegedly told him that she had sexual relations with Lee Harvey Oswald.
LIRING-4Chichay Jurado. Worked as a secretary for LIRING-1 in Cuban Embassy in Mexico City in 66-67 period. Wife of LIRING-3, Carlos Jurado.
LIRING-9Enrique M. Cicard Librada
LIROMANCE A CIA Mexico City Station audio surveillance operation; the listening device was installed inside the furniture in the Cuban embassy in Mexico City.
LISAMPANLISAMPAN was a multiaudio project covering the Cuban Embassy and the residence of the Cuban ambassador in Mexico, installed in late 1964. [status: Unknown]
LISICLE-1Marginal agent, medical student. [status: Unknown]
LISIREN-3Stayed at the Ochsner Clinic in early November 1963 [status: Unknown]
LISPURA magazine proposed by the Mexico City station that was rejected by the ambassador as „too dangerous“. HQ wanted to fund this magazine. [status: Speculative]
LISTEED-2Double agent with connections in San Diego that was working Soviet commercial attache Vladimir Fedorovich Kuznetsov in Mexico City. One of five double agents that the US relied on Mexico City in November 1963. [status: Unknown]
LITABBYA photographic base used by Mexico City Station to obtain intelligence on foreign officials and related individuals.
LITAG-1Jaime Varela Canosa, naval attache at the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City until he defected in March 1960.
LITAINTHarassment efforts directed at the Cuban compound in Mexico City in the 1960s.
LITAINT-1Angel Lorenzo Saavedra Correa – known in the US as „Manuel Villafana Martinez“ – a Cuban Military and Air Attaché who defected to the US in April 1960. He fought at the Bay of Pigs and with Comandos Mambises in 1963.
LITAINT-2Ran a harassment program aimed at the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City during 1962-1963. [status: Unknown]
LITAINT-5Julian Arias Prado, a member of Task Force W’s Debriefing Unit in Mexico City in 1962; active with LITAINT since 1960 after resigning as Cuban vice consul in Los Angeles and moving into Mexico. Also known as AMTOAD-1.
LITAINT-7Antonio Montanes, Second secretary at the Cuban embassy in Mexico who made a dramatic defection speech that „received wide play in the Mex. press“.
LITALK-1Agent that worked with both DFS officer Fernando Gutierrez and Mexican government official Luis Echavarria. [status: Unknown]
LITALUS-1Surveillance agent in Mexico City who had Thomas Hazlett as his case officer for several years. [status: Unknown]
LITALUS-2Agent conducting surveillance in Mexico City. His case officer in 1963 was Thomas Hazlett aka Clyde Shryock. [status: Unknown]
LITALUS-3This recruited agent was the first to plant microphones inside the Cuban embassy. [status: Unknown]
LITAMIL-1Manuel Machado Llosas, a Cuban businessman in Mexico and treasurer of the July 26 movement in Mexico.
LITAMIL-13Source for LITAMIL-2, used in late 1963 in the MHVIPER program for economic warfare on Cuba. 201-329618. [status: Unknown]
LITAMIL-2201-275992. Was born in 1918. Resided in the US from 1936 to 1941. Had diplomatic plates in 1960. Purchased arms and equipment, established a clandestine radio station in Mexico prior to Castro’s successful revolt. [status: Speculative]
LITAMIL-3Ricardo Vidal Dominguez. Informant within the Cuban diplomatic corps who tried to convince consul Eusebio Azcue to defect during September 1963. He himself had a history as consul in the Cuban embassy in Mexico City, 1959-1961.
LITAMIL-7Consuelo Esperon Perez, a secretary at the Cuban Embassy, received operational approval as an agent of Task Force W, Mexico City during 1962-1963.
LITAMIL-9Luis Alberu Souto, Cuban Cultural Attache in Mexico City, working as a double-agent for the CIA. According to one CIA document, LITAMIL-9 made photo identifications for the LIONION surveillance project.
LITEASE-1An American double agent in Mexico City that convinced Vladimir Koznetsov to use her as an agent in late 1963. [status: Unknown]
LITEMPOOperation support and security backstopping for the Mexico City operations, commencing in 1960. Involved a liaison relationship with the Mexican government.
LITEMPO-1Emilio Bolanos, a nephew of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Minister of Gobernación and then President of Mexico from 1964-1970.
LITEMPO-12Miguel Nazar Haro, aka Angus J. Laverdure aka Juan Noriega – a Mexico City station agent close to Win Scott between 1960-1971 who became head of the DFS in 1976 before his US conviction in the 1980s for smuggling stolen cars. [status: Probable]
LITEMPO-2Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970. He was president in 1968 during the famous Tlatelcolco massacre. Diaz Ortiz was part of Mexico City station chief Win Scott’s LITEMPO program. Later known as LIRAMA.
LITEMPO-4Fernando Gutierrez Barrios, head of the Mexican secret police (DFS) from 1964 to 1970, and later held other Mexican government posts. Gutierrez Barrios was part of Mexico City station chief Win Scott’s LITEMPO program.
LITEMPO-8Luis Echeverria Alvarez, acting secretary of Gobernacion in 1963; Mexican Interior Minister in 1964; President from 1970-76; and the liaison contact with the Mexico City station during chief Win Scott’s tenure.
LITENSORAdolfo Lopez Mateos, President of Mexico in 1963.
ODDepartments or agencies of the U.S. government.
ODACIDU.S. State Department.
ODALOEU.S. Secret Service.
ODBEATDefense Intelligence Agency. [status: Probable]
ODBOONU.S. Customs Agency.
ODCOILBureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [status: Probable]
ODEARLU.S. Department of Defense.
ODENVYFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
ODFOAMU.S. Secret Service.
ODINCHNational Security Agency
ODUNITU.S. Air Force.
ODURGEU.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
ODWIFEAgency for International Development.
ODYOKEUnited States government. It sometimes specifically means „The White House“. Note to see if it is referring to an individual or entity in charge for a particular set of decisions on behalf of the US government.
PBRelated to entire countries, or possibly countries in North America or Western Hemisphere. [status: Speculative]
PBGREGALEOperation using Clare Booth Luce and other socialites and personalities as contributors in a Latin American publication during 1958. [status: Probable]
PBGROVELAn Guatemalan operation – probably a funding source – using David Phillips in the early 1950s. [status: Unknown]
PBHISTORY„Central Intelligence Agency project to gather and analyze documents from the Arbenz government in Guatemala that would incriminate Arbenz as a Communist.“
PBPRIMEUnited States of America.
PBSUCCESSProject to overthrow Arbenz government in Guatemala in 1954.
PBSWINGU.S. Embassy or official installation.
PBWIZARDEarly fifties project involving attorney Edward P. Morgan, former FBI agent who blew the whistle on the Castro assassination plots in the late sixties. This project used Morgan as a conduit for the CIA to secretly donate money to John Hopkins University and the School for Advanced International Studies. [status: Probable]
QDAnti-Castro activists working directly with William Pawley. [status: Speculative]
QDBIASPedro Diaz Lanz.
QDCHARMarcos Diaz Lanz, brother of Pedro Diaz Lanz.
QDCOVERicardo de la Lorie, aka Ricardo Luis de la Lorie-Bals, aka Ricardo Lorie Valls.
QDDALEWilliam D. Pawley. A former diplomat, he had also owned major sugar interests in Cuba, as well as Havana’s bus, trolley and gas systems.
QDELFPossibly Hal Hendrix, Source with a great deal of background on Miami journalists. Identity still unknown. [status: Probable]
QK??? [status: Unknown]
QKACTIVEProgram to weaken the Soviet regime, run by the CIA’s Soviet division, utilizing radio broadcasts (Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty), the Institute for the Study of the USSR (BGCALLUS) chaired by Stanislaw Stankiewicz, and published articles and books. [status: Probable]
QKENCHANT„Agency project used to provide security approvals on non-Agency personnel and facilities…..to discuss proposed projects, activities, and possible relationships.“
QKFLOWAGEUnited States Information Agency/USIA
QKGLACEPropaganda issued by political organizations. [status: Probable]
QKHILLTOPA cryptonym assigned in 1954 to a project to study Chinese Communist brainwashing techniques and to develop interrogation techniques.
QKMAGNETA consortium of agents from Immigration (INS), Customs, the Bureau of International Programs of the Department of Commerce, and the US Coast Guard. The apparent purpose was to allow certain raids on Cuba based on approval from intelligence chiefs. [status: Probable]
WODivisions of the CIA itself (see also KU).
WOBONEThe CIA’s Office of Security [status: Probable]
WOHIVEThe Office of Strategic Services
WOLADYThe nation of Mexico. [status: Probable]
WOMACEDDO – Directorate of Operations (formerly Directorate of Plans).
WOMUSECIA CounterIntelligence staff. [status: Probable]
WOVIEWCIA’s Covert Action Staff.
ZRReferring to projects emanating from Staff D (signals and communications intelligence). Related, in an elastic sense, to CIA foreign intercept and code-breaking activities conducted to collect data for the NSA. [status: Speculative]
ZRACORNLumumba assassination project in the Congo. [status: Unknown]
ZRAFRAIDThe Psychology Congress that held its biennial meeting in December 1963 in Mexico City. [status: Probable]
ZRALERTUse of hypnotism by CounterIntelligence staff in „certain operational situations.“
ZRAVOIDU.S. Border Patrol. [status: Probable]
ZRAWARDLatin American Information Center, which later became the Business Council in 1963 and the Council of the Americas in 1970.
ZRBEACHCommunications intercepts by the CIA that are passed on to the NSA.
ZRCHESTA Staff D project which put Technical Services Division/Audio chief David Christ and his team into Cuba to tap the New China News Agency circuits and obtain information for breaking their commercial codes. [status: Speculative]
ZRCLIFFSouthern Air Transport Inc., a CIA „proprietary“ aviation company in Miami.
ZRGRACEThe operation that hunted for the NSA defectors, Martin and Mitchell. [status: Unknown]
ZRJEWELA paramilitary training program in 1961 that included Rip Robertson, Grayston Lynch, and Lucien Conein.
ZRJOINTAlternate name for LIENVOY.
ZRKNICKThe communications monitoring operation against Cuban agents in Latin America. To avoid violating the rule prohibiting CIA operations inside the US, the FBI would obtain the take in these instances and then share the results with CIA.
ZRMAJORA project for the exploitation of political consultants.
ZRPENNYActivity to counter Cuban student participation in communist-sponsored world youth festival in Helsinki in 1962.
ZRPRIMAProgram to penetrate the foreign technical personnel being hired by Castro to work in Havana.
ZRRIFLEProgram to recruit foreign criminal assets for various illegal activities including burglary, wire taps, strong arm work and thefts in support of ZR code breaking work. Later used by William Harvey as a cover for an Executive Action assassinations program.
ZRSIGNA program using American labor organizer and CIA agent Serafino Romualdi. [status: Probable]
ZRSOLOAn alternate name for the Mexico City listening posts of LIFEAT.
ZRTAFFYA closed channel internal CIA communication between Headquarters and some other CIA office of which only the principals (usually two) were cognizant. A single channel dissemination keeping information tight and secure. [status: Probable]
ZRWAGONA program of overseas dockside sabotage operations, including the recruitment of seamen. The target was commercial shipments to Cuba. [status: Probable]
ZRWAHOOThinly based intelligence reports on Latin American subjects in the Western Hemisphere, collected outside regular channels that need to be checked out more thoroughly. [status: Probable]
ANTLERSA highly sensitive CIA project to move a defector from Europe to the US „…without leaving any trace of his true identity.“
AQUATICAQUATIC was an Office of Technical Security program that deployed a variety of intrusive techniques. Documented usage against Cuban diplomatic facilities in Mexico City.
AQUATONEThe production and development of planes and equipment designed particularly for intelligence purposes. A joint procurement project by both the CIA and the Air Force. The objective was to obtain coverage of high priority targets in the USSR.
ARTICHOKEThe study and/or use of „special“ interrogation methods and techniques. These „special“ interrogation methods have been known to include the use of drugs and hypnosis, and „total isolation“, a form of psychological harassment.
ATTICPyotr Popov, who provided information on the Soviet Union to CI/SIG.
BARRThe communications designator for the the JMBAR facility at Key West. [status: Probable]
BEThe CIA nation designation for operations in Soviet controlled Poland. [status: Probable]
BESMOOTHA project to monitor and translate foreign intelligence communications, process the material, and assess and recruit potential targets as intelligence sources.
BEVISIONProject using the Polish defector Michael Goleniewski [status: Unknown]
BGACTRESSInternational Organizations Division [status: Probable]
BGGYPSYThe nation of Russia and Russian connected operations. [status: Probable]
BGMORNINGA program related to LIFEAT, Mexico City, and the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel
BIOGENESISArgentine federal police. Principal liaison service of the Buenos Aires CIA station and used for telephone-tapping and other joint operations.
BKCROWNCIA. This cryptonym was adopted in the early 1970s. [status: Probable]
BKHERALDCIA, Soviet Bloc division. This cryptonym was used in the 1970s. [status: Probable]
BLANKETA request to permit discussion of National Security Council 5412/2 matters on a need-to-know basis.
BUTANEA surveillance project created at the direction of the Director of Central Intelligence to determine the activities and contacts of Victor Marchetti a former CIA employee with current Agency employees.
BYEMANProgram for clearance for a CIA officer to handle sigint (signals intelligence) materials. [status: Probable]
CANDICuban intelligence service clandestine drop in Mexico City
CAPRICE-1Possibly Oscar Mendoza Concepcion. Cuban intelligence agent, stationed in the Cuban embassy. [status: Speculative]
CARROTExfiltration operation in 1961, designed to rescue members of the Escambray Libre (EL) forces in the Sierra Maestra after the capture of their leader Plinio Prieto.
CELOTEX-1Physical surveillance by CIA of Washington Post reporter for four month period in early 70s.
CELOTEX-2Surveillance of DC journalist Jack Anderson and his staff.
CIDigraph for Venezuela.
CIARK-1May have been the father of Rafael Rivas Vasquez. Described as a medium level Venezuelan Government official with contacts among Cuban exiles. [status: Speculative]
CIFENCE-4Luis Posada. This cryptonym was used after the use of AMCLEVE-15.
CIHUMP-1Jose de Jesus Planas. Was appointed Assistant Secretary of Labor in the new Cuban labor movement in early January 1959. Also appointed to posts in this organization were Reinaldo Pico and Reinol Gonzalez Moure (Gonzalez).
CIMOTIF-1A member of the JURE Cuban exile group that fled Panama and traveled with Manolo (Manuel) Ray. [status: Probable]
CIRAKE-1Unknown. His chief asset was US AFL-CIO officer Salvador Romani. [status: Unknown]
CIRAKE-3Unknown Cuban exile in Caracas, selling radio commo materials and equipment. [status: Unknown]
CIRASH-6Orlando Garcia Vasquez. Involved in smuggling arms to Autentico party chief Carlos Prio in Cuba during the 1950s. Others investigated in this arms trade included Robert Ray McKeown. McKeown had at least one meeting with Jack Ruby, who also was involved in Cuban arms trade.
CITASTEDirector of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles
CITUTOR-1Rafael Tremols Fresneda, DRE member in Caracas.
CLIPIn 1960, CIA initiated a program under the codename „CLIP“ (105-89923), the establishment of an organization among anti-Castro exiles capable of replacing the Castro government. In May, 1960, CIA furnished the names of the men who would become the nucleus of the FRD.
CORALClearance for military matters; it may be related to decisions about life-or-death situations, based on the high level paramilitary and intelligence people who received this clearance. It could be related to the coral beaches of the Caribbean. [status: Speculative]
DAINOLDDesmond FitzGerald, chief of Special Affairs Section (SAS) during 1963, the successor group to Bill Harvey’s Task Force W.
DEPIGRAMSource and spotter for the Corsicans. In 1960, a CIA official recommended that he be „eliminated“ – „cut out of the operation“ after choosing QJ-WIN. [status: Unknown]
DIThe CIA nation designation for operations in Soviet controlled Czechoslovakia.
DIZTAGThe nation of Czechoslovakia
DMThe CIA nation designation for operations in Soviet controlled Yugoslavia. [status: Probable]
DMLIVIDMajor Djurorie Dujare Djurorie [status: Probable]
DNThe CIA nation designation for South Korea. [status: Probable]
DTDORICIndicator for covert action to be used in book distribution programs directed at intellectuals in communist and socialist countries.
DTFROGSThe nation of El Salvador.
DTGODOWNThe American wing of the Congress for Cultural Freedom
DTLEAFAGELiterary project to counter Soviet propaganda. [status: Probable]
DTMIKADOA Japanese operation. The subject – businessman Gordon McClendon. Subject knew it was a CIA matter.
DYMAROONThe United States Department of State.
DYVOURRouting indicator for Mexico. [status: Probable]
EMANTHEM-1I. Irving Davidson, public relations officer. [status: Speculative]
EMARGOSYAn operation in the Dominican Republic in 1966, related to the US invasion. [status: Probable]
EMDEEDDelivery of pistols, carbines, submachine guns and ammo from the CIA to the Dominican Republic for the purpose of assassinating Rafael Trujillo in 1961. [status: Probable]
ERACERB-1Luis Debayle Somoza, President of Nicaragua. [status: Probable]
ERYTHROID-3Captain Franklin Anthony Wheelock Garcia, chief of the Anti-Communist Section, Office of National Security, Nicaragua. [status: Probable]
ESLARD-1Juan Jose Arevalo Bermejo.
ESVEHICLE-1General Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes, president of Guatemala from 1958 to March 1963.
EVAL-3Secretary of CIA officer Nestor Sanchez. [status: Probable]
FJDUSTCable indicator for CIA security.
FJHEARSAYThe Coordinating Secretariat of National Unions of Students (COSEC). Later in the 60s, it became known as the International Student Conference. This organization had contacts with and support from friends within the CIA and was generally supportive of anti-Communist positions.
FUBIAS-7Enrique Villarrea, worked on the FUBIAS Project in 1965. It appeared to contain some kind of DRE involvement. Villarrea worked closely with Reinaldo Pico Ramon (AMICE-31) in the early months of 1965 in particular.
FULMINATOR-1David Atlee Phillips, during a portion of the 1950s.
GFGESTETNERHerbert Manell, chief of anti-Soviet operations in Mexico City station from 1959-1964.
GIAGAR-7A member of the GIAGAR group established to support viable anti-Castro activities in Columbia. [status: Probable]
GOLIATHDescription of the CIA during late fifties and sixties, with perhaps an emphasis on its domestic intelligence activities. [status: Speculative]
GOOSECREEKSlugline used when requests are made for traces or other assistance from Staff D. [status: Speculative]
GRIPWestern European business excecutive of proven reliability, had business inside Cuba and was involved in a variety of operations, including an AMLASH operation to deliver pills to poison or otherwise kill Fidel Castro in a Vedado restaurant between 1962-1964. [status: Unknown]
GYROSERouting indicator for Task Force W’s communications regarding Cuba.
HBEPITOMEOfficers Foundation for Youth and Student Affairs. Worked with the International Organizations Division, which later was folded into the Covert Action Division. [status: Probable]
HBFAIRYThe nation of France. [status: Probable]
HTBASTEA pitch for defection made by a CIA officer at the United Nations. In later years, the term became used for the United Nations itself. [status: Probable]
HULAKE-1Flores Fernando Vega Lopez, San Juan source on the activities of Manuel Artime during 1963. Also referred to as Flores Fernandez Vega Lopez. [status: Probable]
HUMAP-9Lt. Colonel Fernando FIguls Quiros, head of Costa Rica’s Security Agency and aide to the President.
HYSAGE-1Thelma King, Panamanian legislator and double or triple agent. She indicated to CIA officer Jake Esterline on 11/22/63 that she knew Oswald and said that „Castro would never do that“. Had dual loyalties to Cuba and the United States.
IGORA pre-Bay of Pigs operation. [status: Probable]
IJDECANTERA Second Directorate KGB officer providing information to the CIA whose bona fides were prior firmly established.
INANITIONMystery figures passing on information about Richard Gibson and Lee Harvey Oswald. [status: Unknown]
ISOLATIONCIA’s Camp Peary, also known as „The Farm“.
JAGUARMI-5, the domestic branch of the British Intelligence Service. [status: Probable]
JKLANCECodename for the CIA, adopted by the Agency in about 1967 and borrowed from JFK’s Secret Service code name LANCER, in the wake of charges made by New Orleans DA Jim Garrison and others of CIA involvement in the JFK assassination.
JUDASA plan to kill Castro during 1963-1964. CIA officers stated that this was not its operation, and tried to learn more about it. [status: Probable]
KAPOKCable indicator for the highest level of document sensitivity. KAPOK is above RYBAT, which is above EYES ONLY.
KDFACTORA compartmentalized foreign intelligence project originally approved in 1958 as LIEMPTY before it was renamed in 1970. Its role was to provide financial and material support for visual and photographic surveillance operations targeting the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City.
KEYWAYCIA Europe Division
KLDigraph for operations in Bolivia. [status: Probable]
KLAMBROSIA-29Lydia Duran became a CIA source in Bolivia during October 1959. She was the sister-in-law of Cuban consulate secretary Silvia Duran.
KMFLUSHThe nation of Nicaragua.
KMFORGETA program where stories planted by the agency in one country would be clipped and mailed to media in other countries, and such efforts enhanced the likelihood that the stories would be seen by an American correspondent and transmitted home.
KMLASKINGWorld Assembly of Youth, an anti-Communist organization run by the CIA since 1954.
KMPAJAMAThe nation of Mexico.
KMPLEBEThe nation of Peru.
KMULCERThe nation of Italy.
KOBIRDThe CIA’s East Asia Division.
LADILLINGERBarbara Murphy Manell – the contract officer at the Soviet desk in Mexico City that wrote the 10/8/63 memo identifying Oswald as telephoning the Soviet embassy on October 1. [status: Unknown]
LAROBDouble agent of FBI and USSR. A saIes representative for American Airlines, may be 201-729524, identity remains unknown. [status: Unknown]
LAURICLEAn action indicator for Staff D operations.
LCFLAKEThe nation of Greece.
LIBORIOMRP plan to overthrow the Cuban government in the autumn of 1961. Assisted by CIA agent AMCOAX-1/Jose Pujals Mederos. AMBLOOD was also part of this operation.
LNAGONBureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. This cryptonym was used during the seventies.
LNCOLLARDrug Enforcement Agency (DEA) – formed in the early 1970s.
LNERGOFBI, used during the late 60s and 70s.
LNGOLDThe US Department of State.
LNPUREUS Embassy or Consulate.
LPDICTUMLPDICTUM/LPSPICE was an investment company. As of September 1973, it had invested over $100,000 in Petrolcos Mexicanos, S.A. Mexico. LPDICTUM/WUSALINE was also a investment company. Both companies were dissolved between 1965-1975, but their officers may have maintained links with the CIA [status: Probable]
LPHIDDENAn extremely sensitive operation run by the Office of Security in 1954. Private investigator Robert A. Maheu was paid by a competitor of Aristotle Onassis in 1954 to carry out a campaign of wiretaps and dirty tricks against the Greek shipping tycoon – with the knowledge and approval of the CIA and then-vice president Richard M. Nixon. [status: Unknown]
LPOVERConover Mast Publications [status: Probable]
MERRIMACA penetration and surveillance project designed to monitor dissident groups and potential threats to Agency personnel and operations.
MHDesignation is to signify the program had a worldwide area of operations. [status: Probable]
MHAPRONWorldwide program for the penetration of the power centers and armed forces of the Cuban regime.
MHCHAOSProgram to gather and evaluate all available information about foreign links to racial, antiwar and other protest activity in the United States.
MHCHILDA program encompassing a variety of so-called „babysitting“ chores. [status: Probable]
MHDOWELA descriptor for the revelations in 1967 about the CIA’s subsidies to the National Student Association, unions, businesses, foundations, and various other groups in the public sphere. [status: Probable]
MHMUTUALAn insurance program for non-staff covert CIA agents to receive death and disability payments.
MHORDERIndicator for negative publicity about the CIA. [status: Probable]
MHVIPEREconomic denial program focusing on sabotage of all Cuban traffic involving buying, selling, and shipment of parts and supplies.
MKAn operation of the CIA’s Office of Technical Services Staff.
MKCHARITYEquipment basehouse in Mexico City, supported by the CIA’s Technical Services Division. It was located in the home of technical security officer Harvey Mulford.
MKNAOMIA joint project between the CIA and the Army’s Special Operations Division involving the use of chemical and biological agents for a variety of purposes including both incapacitation and elimination. Program operational between 1952 and 1970.
MKTOPAZCIA Technical Services Division. Functions included preparation of false documents and related cover/backstop identity materials.
MKTRAPThe technical nomenclature of a hot-mike telephone installation. Beginning in 1962, such a device was installed at the Cuban embassy in Mexico City.
MKULTRAMKULTRA was the principal CIA program involving the research and development of chemical, biological and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.
MONGOOSEA major covert action program aimed at overthrowing the Castro regime in Cuba from November 1961 to October 1962. The Chief of Operations was Gen. Edward Lansdale, who coordinated the activities among the CIA, the State Department, and the Defense Department.
NEMOV-1Marvin Kantor, a Russian-speaking student who defected to Minsk, and left shortly before Oswald’s arrival. Like Oswald, he was the only American in Minsk at the time.
NIACTAn abbreviation for „Night action“, a communications indicator requiring action by the recipient at any hour day or night.
NIEXIT-3An agent handling a communication circuit based in Mexico. [status: Probable]
NONIACTNo night action. [status: Unknown]
NOTLOXThe radio channel used by CIA to communicate with MRR inside Cuba.
OLYMPUSA PW effort with the DRE. The plan was to parachute into an airdrop zone and set up propaganda programs for the guerilla movement.
OMEGAAn exile group plan to invade Cuba, in the 1963-1964 time period, with Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo as the military chief.
OPERATION40Counter-intelligence team which was to be integrated into the brigade and charged with the occupation and temporary administration of liberated territories. Comprised of AMFASTs and AMOTs. Military leader was Vicente Leon Leon who died at Bay of Pigs; overall leader was Joaquin Samjenis. [status: Probable]
OWVLOne way, coded radio telegraphy link. Required sender/receiver one time PAD for decoding message.
PALPCIA Headquarters station in Washington, D.C.
PARAGONThe domestic surveillance of Thelma King, a Latin American revolutionary whose group possessed alleged ties to a prominent CIA detractor. The CIA’s Office of Security also conducted domestic surveillance of several of King’s contacts in multiple US cities.
PASSAVOYCol. Wendell C. Johnson, retired Army colonel, was hired in 1961 as a contract agent. [status: Probable]
PATTYOperation to kill Fidel Castro and Raul Castro on 7/26/61, and then fire on Guantanamo Naval Base under the cover of Cuban uniforms, with the hope of provoking a US invasion of Cuba.
PAWNEE-3REDSKIN student in Helsinki during the summer of 1959. Friendly with Gregoriy Golub, the Soviet consul in Helsinki. Her Finnish was not as good as that of another REDSKIN student, PAWNEE-5. PAWNEE-3’s identity is unknown.
PAWNEE-5REDSKIN student in Helsinki during the summer of 1959. Flirted with Gregoriy Golub, the Soviet consul in Helsinki. During Sept. 1959, Golub began to offer „instant visas“ for foreigners seeking to enter the USSR through Helsinki. Lee Oswald was one of the first to use this new arrangement. PAWNEE-5’s identity is unknown.
PBIMPULSEA hot-mike telephone, used in Mexico City.
PDDONORYuriy Ivanovich Nosenko, using the pseudonym George Martin Rosnek. He was a highly controversial Russian defector who caused a deep split among CIA leaders regarding his credibility.
PEKLOKRadio communications circuit used by the MRR before NOTLOX.
PEPEExfiltration-infiltration Cuban operation in 1962, run by Dr. Augusto Valdes Miranda aka Polo Miranda.
PLMHABYSSPersons or events that provide „low points“ in the CIA’s history. Offered from the viewpoint of the Office of Security. [status: Speculative]
PLUTOThis operation appears to be a Pentagon plan for air operations, and not strictly speaking a CIA cryptonym. It appears to be only a part of the CIA-led Operation Zapata, which entailed the landing of troops on the Zapata Peninsula in Central Cuba. [status: Probable]
PLVWBLANKETDescriptor for embarrassing information about the CIA that has or will enter the public arena. [status: Probable]
PLVWCADETHighly sensitive information that would be embarrassing to CIA if it were to be exposed. [status: Probable]
QJBANNER-1Uncertain at this time.
QJWINJose Marie Andre Mankel
QKIVORYNational Committee for a Free Europe and its subcommittees.
QKOPERACongress of Cultural Freedom, sponsoring Western intellectuals, artists, and musicians – some knew about their CIA benefactors, while others did not.
QMTURGIDOne of the Watergate burglars, and probably Howard Hunt. [status: Probable]
QRACTIVERadio Liberty – CIA proprietary, began in 1953 broadcasting to the Soviet Union in Russian and fifteen other languages.
QUHOPS-1Jose Luis Gonzalez Gallarreta, an AMLASH operative that provided Rolando Cubela with a telescopic rifle, a silencer, and other equipment designed for the assassination of Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro.
QUMALT-1Odon Alvarez de la Campa
QUSPORT-1Bichi Bernal, Cuban military attache in Japan who was recruited by the CIA and then defected.
QUSWIFT-1Earl Williamson, Chief of Madrid Station in the nation of Spain [status: Probable]
QUSWIFT-7Miguelina Teurbe-Tollon Collado, nicknamed“Tota“, a woman in Paris that worked with the AMLASH group after her partner was killed in a Cuban prison.
REDCAPREDCAP was a program of operational exploitation of Soviet personnel. Included within its objectives was inducement of Soviets to defect from their official posts, or to extract information from them in the course of attempting to convince them to defect.
REDCOATInformation indicator for the Soviet/Eastern European Division.
REDSKINCIA source program based in legal travelers to the Iron Curtain countries.
REDSOXIllegal operations mounted into the USSR.
REDTOPCIA Soviet Division.
REDWOODAction indicator for the Soviet/Eastern European Division.
RESISTANCEThis project was designed to provide security to CIA recruiters on college campuses.
RXZIMContested cryptonym for Lee Harvey Oswald. Cited by CIA officer James Wilcott. Not corroborated. [status: Speculative]
RYBATA high level of secrecy required to protect the message. As of 1969, if a document was marked as „RYBAT“, CIA employees were not allowed to photocopy it.
SEALProject containing Information concerning Office of Security operational support for covert action relative to the Bay of Pigs invasion. Project continued for years after the Bay of Pigs.
SGHOUSEAn accounting program used to provide vouchered funds for administrative purposes.
SKEWER-1Luis A. Ferre, former governor of Puerto Rico
SLEEPERThis project used a Cuban official within the Communist Party to gather intelligence. [status: Probable]
SLFREE-1Irving Richard Poyle, jailed in Cuba between 1964-1973. At the time of JFK’s death, the CIA was planning a meeting with him in Mexico regarding the AMROD operation with officer Oliver Fortson, whose actual identity remains uncertain.
SLINCTelegram indicator for CIA’s Guatemalan covert operations headquarters in Florida.
SLIPSTREAMAgent that identified the „Mystery Man“ in Mexico City as Juriy (Yuri) Maskelov. [status: Speculative]
SMThe CIA nation designation for the United Kingdom. [status: Probable]
SMOTHMI-6, the British intelligence agency that provides the British government with foreign intelligence.
STESCALADEThe bugging or attempted bugging of the New China News Agency in Havana by David Christ and his Office of Technical Security colleagues in 1960. [status: Probable]
STGANGAudio operations targeting Chinese Communists in Mexico City.
SUGARRichard Gibson, chair of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee from 1961-1962, and then an expatriate in Europe. His work for the CIA began no later than 1965.
TARBRUSHA black propaganda program run by the Mexico City station during the 1950s-1960s.
TEKLOKAgent inside Cuba in 1961 attempting to kill Fidel Castro, war name „Luis Jorge“. [status: Unknown]
TODHUNTERDDCI Marshall Carter
TOPAZIn Leon Uris‘ book Topaz, this was the pseudonym for Phillipe Thyraud de Vosjoli, member of the French intelligence service SDECE.
TPELIDEAt least through 4/64, used by the Mexico City station as a generic term for „embassy“ and also used for a CIA team conducting surveillance. Caused confusion within CIA ranks. [status: Probable]
TPRANSACKA covert action program targeting left wing groups within the trade union movement using the International Federation of Journalists. [status: Probable]
TPTONICRadio Free Europe, aimed at the Eastern European countries.
TWIXTRobert Maheu’s first project with the CIA, assigning him to work against the interests of Greek industrialist Aristotle Onassis. Maheu was retained by the CIA to aid Onassis‘ competitor Stavros Nairchos after Onassis cut a deal to control 90% of Saudi Arabia’s oil.
TYPICRouting indicator for Cuban operations. [status: Probable]
UNOperations or agents based in France. [status: Probable]
UNBOUNDFrench security/intelligence service, probably SDECE. [status: Speculative]
UNRUMBLEParisian operation focused on Cuba. [status: Unknown]
UNRUMBLE-2Pedro Ruiz Quintero, a Cuban medical student living in Paris.
UNRUMBLE-6Parisian agent communicating by shortwave with Manuel Ray of JURE. [status: Unknown]
UNSNAFU-5Angel Luis Fernandez Ruiz, worked at Cuban Embassy in Paris
UNSNAFU-9Luis Enrique Trasancos, a CIA penetration agent at the Cuban embassy in Paris.
UNSTARAn unknown French diplomat, who in the days after 11/22/63 allegedly claimed that JFK was killed due to a joint plot by the Chinese government and Castro.
UOACEUOACE was a Western Hemisphere project that provided funds for salary, travel and miscellaneous operations in Mexico in the 1960s.
VENOMA CIA project monitoring the actions of the violent anti-Castro groups, located in Miami. [status: Speculative]
WASHTUBPhony arms cache planted by CIA in Nicaragua during 1954.
WIROGUEThis project used a foreign agent to recruit assets for sabotage, intelligence gathering, and proposed assassinations.
WIROGUE-1David Tzitzichvili aka David de Panaskhet.
WITHRUSHProject using Cuban pilots, possibly in the Congo. [status: Unknown]
WKSCARLET-3Luis Posada [status: Probable]
WKTANGO-1Orlando Garcia Vasquez, head of DISIP intelligence service in Venezuela. Previously known as CIRASH-6. In 1976, he was intelligence and security adviser to Venezuelan president Carlos Andres Perez. [status: Probable]
WSWarfare – more in the context of sabotage than weaponry. Examples would include psychological warfare, political warfare, and economic warfare, in the Cold War context. [status: Probable]
WSACROBATCo-organizers on a literacy seminar. Identity unknown. [status: Unknown]
WSBURNTThe nation of Guatemala.
WSCHILDU.S. National Student Association
WUBONBONBook publishing project – one of the Domestic Operations Division propaganda programs supervised by E. Howard Hunt.
WUBRINYWUBRINY included Haitian operations – but it may have been broader in scope. [status: Probable]
WUBRINY-1Thomas Devine, former CIA staffer who then became an „oil-wildcatting associate“ with George Bush at Zapata Offshore Drilling Company. Devine also became a member of the investment firm of Train, Cabot and Associates, New York. He also does financial consulting. [status: Speculative]
WUMUTUALA mutual fund, used as a proprietary corporation by the CIA. [status: Probable]
WUSALIFYTrain, Cabot & Associates, an investment firm in New York City. [status: Probable]
WUSALINEA proprietary investment and investment consulting firm. WUSALINE may have invested in a number of companies. One of them may have been Zapata Off-shore Drilling Company. George Bush was its CEO from 1956 to 1964. A proprietary corporation housed and managed by the investment firm of Train, Cabot and Associates, New York, aka WUSALIFY. [status: Speculative]
YEASTSlugline used for Operation Yeast, a landing plan for a small group during the Bay of Pigs.
YOACREGuantanamo Naval Base.
YOBELTUniversity of Miami. [status: Probable]
ZENITHA private, civilian corporation known as Zenith Technical Enterprises – serving as the commercial cover for the CIA’s JM/WAVE station in Miami.
ZODIACInternal CIA system for processing travel information regarding all Soviet satellite nationals that travel into or from the United States.
ZOMBIEA list maintained within the CIA’s Records Integration Division of all non-Soviet/satellite nationals who travel to the Soviet bloc.
ZORROA cache operation conducted by a four man team to provide weapons and explosives for Rolando Cubela inside Cuba.
ZRTORCHCommunications between CIA officers and defectors or potential defectors. [status: Probable]
CIA cryptonyms are
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_name „Code name“) or
The term „code word“ was used by the CIA during the 1960s as a partial designation for a Top Secret report on a highly classified and sensitive intelligence topic, and for compartmenting information. In the context of discussing code words used in the President’s Daily Brief (PDB) during the Johnson and Nixon administrations, former CIA Director Richard Helms wrote:
„At the time, the highest security classification was known as Top Secret/Code Word. In practice, the slug — as we called it — ‚Top Secret/Code Word‘ was followed by a noun, so scrupulously chosen that even the most intuitive intruder could not associate a glimpse of the code word with the subject matter it protected. In my day there were a dozen or more of these tightly compartmented classifications of information. Aside from the President and a few others — usually the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and National Security Advisor — no other government official was automatically cleared for ‚all source‘ reports. The lesser recipients of specific code word data had to have a clearly established ’need to know‘ the substance of the compartmentalized report. Compartmentation, as we called it, is one of the most effective means of protecting sensitive data. Even today, I hesitate to pick a typical code word to illustrate the system. As surely as Heaven gave us little green apples, it would be my luck to pick a five-letter noun that is in current use.“
Top Secret/Code Word documents contained „highly classified and sensitive intelligence.“
Format of cryptonyms
Each CIA cryptonym contains a two character prefix called a digraph, which designates a geographical or functional area.Certain digraphs were changed over time; for example, the digraph for the Soviet Union changed at least twice.
The rest is either an arbitrary dictionary word, or occasionally the digraph and the cryptonym combine to form a dictionary word (e.g. AEROPLANE) or can be read out as a simple phrase (e.g., WIBOTHER, read as „Why bother!“). Cryptonyms are sometimes written with a slash after the digraph, e.g., ZR/RIFLE, and sometimes in one sequence, e.g., ZRRIFLE. The latter format is the more common style in CIA documents.
Examples from publications by former CIA personnel show that the terms „code name“ and „cryptonym“ can refer to the names of operations as well as to individual persons. TRIGON, for example, was the code name for Aleksandr Ogorodnik, a member of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in what was then the Soviet Union, whom the CIA developed as a spy; HERO was the code name for Col. Oleg Penkovsky, who supplied data on the nuclear readiness of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. According to former CIA Director Richard M. Helms: „The code names for most Agency operations are picked in sequence from a sterile list, with care taken not to use any word that might give a clue to the activity it covers. On some large projects, code names are occasionally specially chosen — GOLD, SILVER, PBSUCCESS, CORONA. When Bob Kennedy requested a code name for the government-wide plan that Richard Goodwin was drafting, an exception was made. Goodwin was on the White House staff, and the plan concerned Cuba. Occasionally the special code names come close to the nerve, as did MONGOOSE.“ A secret joint program between the Mexico City CIA station and the Mexican secret police to wiretap the Soviet and Cuban embassies was code-named ENVOY.
Some cryptonyms relate to more than one subject, e.g., a group of people. In this case, the basic cryptonym, e.g., LICOZY, will designate the whole group, while each group member is designated by a sequence number, e.g., LICOZY/3, which can also be written LICOZY-3, or just L-3.
Partial list of digraphs and probable definitions
- AE: Soviet Union (1960s)
- AM: Cuba (1960s)
- AV: Uruguay
- BE: Poland
- BG: Albania
- BI: Argentina
- CK: CIA Soviet and East Europe division sensitive cases (late 1970s)
- DB: Iraq
- DI: Czechoslovakia
- DM: SFRY / Yugoslavia
- DN: South Korea
- DU: Peru
- EC: Ecuador
- ES: Guatemala
- GT: CIA Soviet and East Europe division sensitive cases (1980s)
- HA: Indonesia (1958)
- IA: Angola
- JM: Cuba
- KK: Israel
- KU: Part of CIA (1960s)
- LC: China
- LN: United States
- LI: Mexico
- MH: Worldwide operation.
- MJ: Palestinian-related
- MK: CIA Technical Services Division (1950s/1960s)
- MO: Thailand
- OD: Other US Government Departments (1960s)
- PB: Guatemala
- PD: Soviet Union (1980s)
- PO: Japan
- SD: Iran
- SM: United Kingdom
- ST: CIA Directorate of Operations, Far East division, China Branch
- TP: Iran (1953)
- TU: South Vietnam
- WI: Democratic Republic of the Congo (1960s)
- ZR: Intelligence intercept program of CIA Staff D ops, the group that worked directly with the NSA (National Security Agency).
CA, DT, ER, FJ, HB, HO, HT, JU, KM, QK, SC, SE, SG, WS, ZI
- AEFOXTROT: Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko, a Soviet defector.
- AELADLE: Anatoliy Golitsyn, a Soviet defector.
- AESCREEN: Soviet Bloc division’s translation and analysis unit
- AMBIDDY-1: Manuel Artime.
- AMBLOOD: Luis Torroella y Martin Rivero, a CIA agent.
- AMCLATTER-1: Bernard Barker, one of the Watergate burglars.
- AMCRUZ or AMCRUX?
- AMLASH: Plan to assassinate Fidel Castro associated mainly with Rolando Cubela. AMLASH has been referred to as a „basically one-person Cubela operation“.
- AMLASH-1: Rolando Cubela Secades, a Cuban official involved in plot to kill Fidel Castro in 1963.
- AMOT: Cuban exile informants of David Sánchez Morales.
- AMQUACK: Che Guevara, Argentinian (later Cuban) guerrilla leader.
- AMTHUG: Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba 1959-1976.
- AMTRUNK: A CIA plan by New York Times journalist Tad Szulc initiated in February 1963, also called the „Leonardo Plan,“ that was „an attempt to find disgruntled military officials in Cuba who might be willing to recruit higher military officials in a plot to overthrow Castro“, as well as to overthrow the Cuban government „by means of a conspiracy among high-level … leaders of the government culminating in a coup d’etat“. AMTRUNK has also been described as a „CIA-DIA Task Force on Cuba“,and as „a plodding bureaucratic effort“ that „had worked for months to identify Cuban leaders who might be able to stage a coup“.
- AMWHIP-1: Business associate of Santo Trafficante, Jr. who was in contact with Rolando Cubela (AMLASH) in 1963.
- AMWORLD: A plan initiated June 28, 1963, to overthrow the Castro regime in a coup on December 1, 1963 (C-Day), that would have installed Juan Almeida Bosque, a top ranking Cuban military officer, as the new head of state. Some Cuban exiles referred to C-Day as „Plan Omega“.
- DBACHILLES: 1995 effort to support a military coup in Iraq.
- DBROCKSTARS: Iraqi spy ring recruited by the CIA shortly before the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
- CKGULL: CIA Polish agent Ryszard Kukliński (also QTGULL)
- DYCLAIM: CIA
- GROSSBAHN: Otto von Bolschwing, Sicherheitsdienst officer who later served as a spy for CIA
- HTAUTOMAT: Photointerpretation center for the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft project.
- HTKEEPER: Mexico City
- HTLINGUAL: Mail interception operation 1952-1973.
- HTNEIGH: National Committee for Free Albania (NCFA) [1949-mid1950s]
- HTPLUME: Panama
- JMADD: CIA air base near city of Retalhuleu, Guatemala 1960-1961
- JMATE: CIA Air operations office for the Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
- JMBELL: CIA office (location unknown) 1961
- JMBLUG: John Peurifoy, U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala.
- JMFURY: Preparatory strikes against Cuban airfields before Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
- JMGLOW: CIA Washington 1961
- JMTIDE: CIA air base in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua 1961
- JMTRAX: CIA covert air base/training camp in Guatemala 1960-1961
- JMWAVE: CIA station in Miami (that operated against Cuba).
- JMZIP: CIA office (location unknown) 1961
- KKMOUNTAIN: CIA-Mossad cooperation in the 1960s
- KMFLUSH: Nicaragua
- KMPAJAMA: Mexico
- KMPLEBE: Peru
- KUBARK: CIA Headquarters, Langley
- KUBASS: CIA Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T)
- KUCAGE: CIA Overseas Paramilitary / Propaganda Operations
- KUCLUB: CIA Office of Communications
- KUDESK: CIA Counterintelligence department
- KUDOVE: CIA Deputy Director for Operations (DDO)
- KUFIRE: CIA Foreign Intelligence Staff
- KUGOWN: CIA Psychological and Paramilitary Operations Staff
- KUHOOK: CIA Paramilitary Operations Staff
- KUJAZZ: CIA Office of National Estimates
- KUJUMP: CIA Contact Division
- KUKNOB: CIA Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI)
- KUMONK: CIA Office of Political Analysis (OPA)
- KURIOT: CIA Technical Services Division.
- KUSODA: Center for CIA Security.]).
- KUTUBE: CIA Foreign Intelligence Staff.]).
- LCFLUTTER: Polygraph, sometimes supplanted by truth drugs: Sodium Amytal (amobarbital), Sodium Pentothal(thiopental), and Seconal (secobarbital) to induce regression in the subject.
- LCPANGS: Costa Rica
- LNHARP: United States Government
- LIENVOY: Wiretap or intercept program.
- LIONIZER: Guatemalan refugee group in Mexico.
- LITENSOR: Codename of CIA informant Adolfo López Mateos, president of Mexico.
- LITEMPO: Spy network, operated between 1956–1969, to exchange information with Mexican top officers.
- LITEMPO-1 Emilio Bolanos, nephew of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of president Adolfo López Mateos)
- LITEMPO-2: Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of president Adolfo López Mateos and President of Mexico 1964-1970.
- LITEMPO-4 : Fernando Gutiérrez Barrios, Head of the Dirección Federal de Seguridad (DFS), the top Mexican intelligence agency, at the midst of the dirty war (1964 – 1970).
- LITEMPO-8 (later LITEMPO-14): Luis Echeverría, Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz and President of Mexico 1970-1976.
- LITEMPO-12 : Miguel Nazar Haro, a LITEMPO-4 subordinate, known to be in contact with CIA station chief Winston M. Scott; Nazar Haro later became head of the DFS intelligence agency (1978–1982)
- MHCHAOS: Surveillance of antiwar activists during the Vietnam War.
- MJTRUST/2 : Ali Hassan Salameh
- MKCHICKWIT: Identify new drug developments in Europe and Asia and obtain samples, part of MKSEARCH.
- MKDELTA: Stockpiling of lethal biological and chemical agents, subsequently became MKNAOMI.
- MKNAOMI: Stockpiling of lethal biological and chemical agents, successor to MKDELTA.
- MKOFTEN: Testing effects of biological and chemical agents, part of MKSEARCH.
- MKSEARCH: MKULTRA after 1964, mind control research.
- MKULTRA: Mind control research. Renamed MKSEARCH in 1964.
- ODACID: United States Department of State/U.S. embassy
- ODEARL: United States Department of Defense
- ODENVY: Federal Bureau of Investigation
- ODEUM: Gehlen Organization (1950-1951)
- ODOATH: United States Navy
- ODOPAL: Counterintelligence Corps, United States Army
- ODUNIT: United States Air Force
- ODURGE: Immigration and Naturalization Service
- ODYOKE: Federal government of the United States
- PBFORTUNE: CIA project to supply forces opposed to Guatemala’s President Arbenz with weapons, supplies, and funding; predecessor to PBSUCCESS.
- OFFSPRING: Gehlen Organization (1949-1950)
- PBHISTORY: CIA project to gather and analyze documents from the Arbenz government in Guatemala that would incriminate Arbenz as a communist.
- PBJOINTLY: Operation that built a tunnel from the American sector of Berlin, to the Russian sector.
- PBPRIME: the United States
- PBRUMEN: Cuba
- PBSUCCESS: (Also PBS) CIA covert operation to overthrow the Arbenz government in Guatemala in 1954.
- POCAPON: Taketora Ogata, Japanese politician in the 1950s.
- PODAM: Matsutarō Shōriki, Japanese businessman and politician.
- QJWIN: European assassin. Also described as an „assassin recruiter“.
- QKCIGAR: United States Government
- QKELUSION: West German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
- QKENCHANT: CIA program associated with E. Howard Hunt (1918–2007), who with G. Gordon Liddy and others, was one of the White House’s „plumbers“ — a secret team of operatives charged with fixing „leaks“.
- QKFLOWAGE: United States Information Agency
- QTGULL: CIA Polish agent Ryszard Kukliński (also CKGULL)
- SMOTH: UK Secret Intelligence Service (MI6)
- TPBEDAMN: U.S. operation to counter communist subversion in Iran with propaganda and bribes.
- TPAJAX: Joint US/UK operation to overthrow Mohammed Mossadeq, Prime Minister of Iran.
- TPCREDO: Italy
- TPROACH: Yugoslavia
- TPTONIC: National Committee for Free Europe (NCFE)
- UNREST: Otto von Bolschwing
- USAGE: Otto von Bolschwing
- UTILITY: Reinhard Gehlen, first president of the Bundesnachrichtendienst
- ZIPPER: Gehlen Organization (1951-1956)
- ZRRIFLE: An assassination plot targeting Fidel Castro
AEBARMAN, AEFOX, AEROPLANE, AVBLIMP, AVBRANDY, AVBUSY, CABOUNCE, CLOWER, ECJOB, ESGAIN, ESODIC, FJDEFLECT, GOLIATH, HBDRILL, HOPEFUL, JUBATE, JUBILIST, LCPANES, LICOZY, LPHIDDEN, ODIBEX, PBCABOOSE
Operations and projects
- APPLE: Agent team seen in 1952 by CIA/OPC as best bet to successfully continue BGFIEND Project aimed to harass/overthrow Albanian communist regime. Team was arrested, communists controlled radio ops for 16 months, luring more agents into Albania in 1953, and trying and executing original agents in 1954 to suddenly end BGFIEND.
- ARTICHOKE: Anti-interrogation project. Precursor to MKULTRA.
- AZORIAN: Project to raise the Soviet submarine K-129 from the Pacific Ocean.
- BGGYPSY: Communist.
- BLACKSHIELD: A-12 aircraft reconnaissance missions off Okinawa.
- BLUEBIRD: mind control program
- BOND: Puerto Barrios, Guatemala.
- CATIDE: Bundesnachrichtendienst
- CHARITY: Joint CIA/OSO-Italian Naval Intelligence information gathering operation against Albania (1948–1951).
- CHERRY: Covert assassination / destabilization operation during Vietnam war, targeting Prince (later King) Norodom Sihanoukand the government of Cambodia. Disbanded.
- DTFROGS: El Salvador
- ESCOBILLA: Guatemalan national.
- ESMERALDITE: Labor informant affiliated with AFL-sponsored labor movement.
- ESQUIRE: James Bamford, author of „The Puzzle Palace“.
- ESSENCE: Guatemalan anti-communist leader.
- FDTRODPINT : Afghan tribal agents, formerly known as GESENIOR, reactivated in the 1990s by the CIA to hunt Mir Aimal Kasi and later Osama bin Laden.
- FJGROUND: Grafenwöhr, West Germany paramilitary training ground.
- FJHOPEFUL: Military base.
- FPBERM: Yugoslavia
- FUBELT: Project to prevent Salvador Allende rise to power, and to promote a military coup in Chile.
- GANGPLANK: KYP, Greek Central Intelligence Service (1952–1974)
- GESENIOR: Afghan tribal agents working with the CIA during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Later called FDTRODPINT.
- GPFLOOR: Lee Harvey Oswald, J.F. Kennedy’s assassin.
- GPIDEAL: John F. Kennedy, US president.
- GRALLSPICE: Pyotr Popov, CIA Soviet agent
- GUSTO: Project to design a follow-on to the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Succeeded RAINBOW. Succeeded by OXCART.
- HBFAIRY: France
- HTCURIO: American or U.S. [Not Government]
- IAFEATURE: Operation to support the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) during the Angolan civil war.
- IDIOM: Initial work by Convair on a follow-on to the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Later moved into GUSTO.
- Project JBEDICT: Tripartite Stay-Behind project.
- JENNIFER: Document control system for Project AZORIAN.
- KEMPSTER: Project to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of the inlets of the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft.
- KMHYMNAL: Maine-built motor sailer JUANITA purchased by CIA to use as floating, clandestine, propaganda broadcast facility in Mediterranean/Adriatic (1950–53).
- LNWILT: US Counterintelligence Corps (CIC)
- LPMEDLEY: Surveillance of telegraphic information exiting or entering the United States.
- MAGPIE: US Army Labor Service Organization
- MATADOR: Project to recover section of Soviet submarine K-129 dropped during Project AZORIAN. Cancelled after Soviet protest.
- MOCKINGBIRD: Recruitment of American journalists for CIA work.
- MONGOOSE: „Primarily a relentless and escalating campaign of sabotage and small Cuban exile raids that would somehow cause the overthrow of Castro,“ which „also included plans for an invasion of Cuba in the fall of 1962“.
- OAK: Operation to assassinate suspected South Vietnamese collaborators during Vietnam war.
- PANCHO: Carlos Castillo Armas, President of Guatemala, also RUFUS.
- PAPERCLIP: US recruiting of German scientists after World War II.
- PHOENIX: Vietnam covert intelligence/assassination operation.
- RAINBOW: Project to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Succeeded by GUSTO.
- QKWAVER: Egypt
- RUFUS: Carlos Castillo Armas, President of Guatemala, also PANCHO.
- RYBAT: Indicates that the information is very sensitive.
- SARANAC: Training site in Nicaragua.
- SCRANTON: Training base for radio operators near Nicaragua.
- SGCIDER: Germany
- SGUAT: CIA Station in Guatemala
- SHERWOOD: CIA radio broadcast program in Nicaragua begun on May 1, 1954.
- SKILLET: Whiting Willauer, U.S. Ambassador to Honduras.
- SKIMMER: The „Group“ CIA cover organization supporting Castillo Armas.
- SLINC: Telegram indicator for PBSUCCESS Headquarters in Florida.
- STANDEL: Jacobo Arbenz, President of Guatemala.
- STARGATE: Investigation of psychic phenomena.
- STBAILEY: political action and propaganda part of STBARNUM
- STBARNUM: CIA Tibetan program (covert action in Tibet, 1950s onwards)
- STCIRCUS: aerial part of STBARNUM
- STSPIN: Three P-3A Orion aircraft operated from Taiwan in 1966.
- SYNCARP: The „Junta,“ Castillo Armas‘ political organization headed by Cordova Cerna.
- THERMOS: Unclassified codeword used in lieu of RAINBOW
- THROWOFF/2: Albanian ethnic agent/radio operator employed by Italian Navy Intelligence/CIA in several early Cold War covert operations against Albania. Was captured, operated radio under communist control to lure CIA agents to capture/death, tried in 1954, death sentence commuted, freed after 25 years. CIA paid his son $40,000 in 1996.
- OPERATION TILT: The CIA’s name for „an operation put together by John Martino, who was fronting for his boss Santo Trafficante and his roommate Johnny Roselli„. OPERATION TILT used „some of the same people working on the CIA-Mafia plots in the spring of 1963 … [and] involved sending a Cuban exile team into Cuba to retrieve Soviet technicians supposedly ready to defect and reveal the existence of Soviet missiles still on the island“.
- TROPIC: Air operations flown over North Korea, China, and the Soviet Union by CAT pilots during the 1950s.
- VALUABLE: British MI-run Albanian operations 1949 to 1953.
- WASHTUB: Operation to plant Soviet arms in Nicaragua.
- WBFISHY: British Foreign Office
- WSBURNT: Guatemala
- WSHOOFS: Honduras
- ZAPATA: Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961.
- Secret Service codename
- List of U.S. government and military acronyms
- Callsign#Military call signs
- 00 Agent#Origin of nomenclature
- List of military operations
- ^ ab Helms 2003, pp. 378-379
- ^ abcd_Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board, p. 52_
- ^ Wallace and Melton, pp. 88-102
- ^ Helms 2003, p. 216
- ^ Helms 2003, p. 197
- ^ Weiner 2008, p. 258
- ^ abcd David Wise, Nightmover: How Aldrich Ames Sold the CIA to the KGB for $4.6 Million, HarperCollins Publishers, 1996 p.15
- [^](#cite_ref-8)[„Our War“ in Angola, May 22, 1978. TIME Magazine](http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919657,00.html).
- ^ ab Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy, New York, Random House, 1991 pp. 5
- [^](#cite_ref-Friedman05_10-0) Friedman, John S. (2005). The Secret Histories: Hidden Truths That Challenged the Past and Changed the World. Macmillan. pp. 278–279. [ISBN](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number „International Standard Book Number“)0-312-42517-1.
- ^ ab Kai Bird, The Good Spy: The Life and Death of Robert Ames, Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2014 p. 95
- ^ Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA’s Secret War in Tibet, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2002, p. 269
- ^ Ronald Kessler, Spy vs. Spy: Stalking Soviet Spies in America, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988 p. 53
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 878
- [^](#cite_ref-15) Escalante, Fabian. 1995. The Secret War: CIA Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-62, p. 93, [ISBN 1-875284-86-9](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1875284869)
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 262
- ^ abcdefgh Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 204
- ^ ab Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 215
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 38
- ^ abcd Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 794
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 35
- ^ ab Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 216
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009 p. 224
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 19
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 13
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 589
- [^](#cite_ref-27) David Ignatius, [A Big Man To Watch In Baghdad](http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23-2004Jan30_2.html), Washington Post, February 1, 2004
- ^ Bob Woodward, Plan of attack
- ^ ab Benjamin Weiser, A Secret Life: The Polish Officer, His Covert Mission, and the Price He Paid to Save His Country, New York: PublicAffairs, 2003 p. 344
- ^ abcdefghijThe Case of Otto Albrecht Alfred von Bolschwing
- ^ abcdefghijklmResearch Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files
- [^](#cite_ref-33)[George Washington University](http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB204/index.htm)
- ^ ab„El espía que impactó a México“ (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- [^](#cite_ref-35)[http://www2.gwu.edu/ ~ nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB204/index2.htm](http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB204/index2.htm)
- ^ abcdForging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1949-56
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, pp. 35, 136
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 527
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 709
- ^ OBOPUS/BGFIEND, RG263, Various documents, include Vol. 6, Box 47, National Archives, College Park, MD
- ^ abc Sharp 2012
- ^ abc Smith 2003
- ^ ab Steve Coll, Ghost Wars, p.372
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 894
- ^ David Wise, Molehunt: The Secret Search for Traitors that Shattered the CIA, New York: Random House, 1992 p. 46
- ^ Pedlow & Welzenbach, p. 274.
- ^ Contracting officer, Change of Project Funds Obligated Under Contract No. SS-100, Convair, San Diego, California, Project CHAMPION, DPD-2827-59, CIA, Washington, DC, 30 April 1959.
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 37
- ^ Pedlow & Welzenbach, p. 129.
- ^ John B. Roberts II and Elizabeth A. Roberts, Freeing Tibet: 50 Years of Struggle, Resilience, and Hope, New York: AMACOM, 2009 p. 82
- ^ ab Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA’s Secret War in Tibet, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2002, p.
- [^](#cite_ref-55) Pocock, Chris. The Black Bats: CIA Spy Flights Over China From Taiwan, 1951 – 1969. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2010. [ISBN 978-0-7643-3513-6](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780764335136).
- [^](#cite_ref-56) Bissell, Richard M., Jr., „[…] Cable Handling Procedures,“ SAPC-21143, CIA, Washington, DC, 8 November 1957.
- ^ OBOPUS/BGFIEND, AHMET KABASHI, RG263, Name Files, National Archives, College Park, MD
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 471
- ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 438
- Agee, Philip. 1975. Inside the Company: CIA Diary. Stonehill Publishing ISBN 0-14-004007-2, p. 48
- Carl, Leo D. 1990. The International Dictionary of Intelligence. Mavin Books, p. 107
- DPD Contracting Officer, Change of Project Funds Obligated under Contract No. SS-100. CIA DPD-2827-59, 30 April 1959.
- Helms, Richard and Hood, William. 2003. A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. Random House, pp. 378–379
- Pedlow, Gregory W. and Welzenbach, Donald E. 1992. The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and OXCART Programs, 1954 – 1974. CIA History Staff
- Sharp, David (2012). The CIA’s Greatest Covert Operation: Inside the Daring Mission to Recover a Nuclear-Armed Soviet Sub. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 344. ISBN978-0-7006-1834-7.
- Smith W. Thomas. 2003. Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency. Checkmark Books ISBN 0-8160-4666-2
- Stockwell, John. 1978. In Search of Enemies
- Waldron, Lamar and Hartmann, Thom. 2009. Legacy of Secrecy: The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination. Counterpoint (LS)
- Waldron, Lamar and Hartmann, Thom. 2005. Ultimate Sacrifice: John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for a Coup in Cuba, and the Murder of JFK Carroll & Graf Publishers (US)
- Wallace, Robert and Melton, H. Keith. 2008. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA’s Spytechs from Communism to Al-Qaeda. Dutton
- Weiner, Tim. 2008. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. Anchor Books
- Wise, David. 1992. Molehunt. Random House, p. 19
# Research Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Disclosure
|A-287||Cryptonym for Josef Stigler.|
|ABN||Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations (ABN). Stanislaw Stankiewicz was a member of the ABN Central Committee.|
|Abramtchik, Mikola||AECAMBISTA-4, CAMBISTA-4 (cryptonyms). Associated with AEQUOR and AEDEPOT/AEREADY Projects. See also AMCOMLIB, BNR, CHAURUS, SONR.|
|ACEN||Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN).|
|ACKERMAN||Gehlen Organization alias for Ebrulf Zuber.|
|ACROBAT||Cryptonym for Yury Lopatinsky.|
|Adenauer, Konrad||UPTHRUST (cryptonym).|
|AEABYSS||AEABYSS Project involved information collected on Salzgitter Industriebau GmbH. Walter Mehnert associated with Project.|
|AEABYSS-1||Cryptonym for Walter Mehnert.|
|AEACRE||AEACRE (1952-64) established a mechanism for the planning and conduct of REDSOX operations via a Domestic Operations Base (DOB) used for the interrogation, assessment, training, briefing, and preparation for dispatch of agents for infiltration into the USSR. Aleks Kurgvel, Tscherim Soobzokov associated with Project.|
|AEASTER||AEASTER was a program in near east areas to spot, recruit, and train Circassians and other Russian emigres and send them back into the USSR. Tscherim Soobzokov associated with Project.|
|AEBALCONY||AEBALCONY (1960-62) was designed to use U.S. citizens with Baltic language fluency in „mounted“ and „piggy-back“ legal traveler operations into Soviet- occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Jouzas Brazaitis, Vilis Hazners, Edgars Laipenieks associated with Project.|
|AEBASIN||AEFREEMAN (1953-64), which included AEBASIN/AEROOT (1953-60), AEFLAG (1955-62), and AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (1949-59)), was designed to strengthen resistance to communism and harrass the Soviet regime in the Baltic countries. AEBASIN/AEROOT supported Estonian emigres and émigré activities aganist the Estonian SSR. AEFLAG was aimed at people of the Latvian SSR. AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (formerly BGLAPIN)) targeted the Lithuanian SSR. These projects provided intelligence and operational data from Baltic countries through radio broadcasts, mailing operations, liaison with emigre organizations, political and psychological (PP) briefings for legal travelers and exploitation of other media such as demonstrations. Aleks Kurgvel, Elmar Lipping, Romulus Mandel associated with AEBASIN/AEROOT Project. Vilis Hazners associated with AEFLAG Project. Antanas Bernotas, Jouzas Brazaitis, Stasys Rastikis associated with AEPOLE Project. Alexandras Lileikis associated with AECHAMP Project. ILgvars Skaistlauks considered for possible use on AECHAMP Project.|
|AEBASIN-4||Cryptonym for Elmar Lipping.|
|AEBATH||AEDOGMA / AEBATH (1947-61), which supported the activities of the Principal Agent (PA), Michael Korzhan, was designed to produce CI/CE information on two Ukrainian nationalist groups in Germany; positive intelligence on other Ukrainian groups in Germany and Western Europe; information on Soviet penetration of Orthodox churches; and miscellaneous CE and other support activities beginning in 1947. In 1959, the PA was transferred to Paris to report on the efforts of the Soviet Services in emigre circles; and to act as a spotter in Soviet emigre circles for REDSKIN opportunities. The PA was not very productive in Paris and the project was terminated in 1961.|
|AEBATH-1||Cryptonym for Michael Korzhan.|
|AEBEEHIVE||QRDYNAMIC/QRPLUMB (formerly AEBEEHIVE) (1970-91) superceded Project AERODYNAMIC and supported the Ukrainian émigré organization ZP / UHVR (Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council) with a New York publishing arm called Prolog Research Corporation (QRTENURE, AETENURE) and a Munich Office, Ukrainian Society for Foreign Studies (QRTERRACE, AETERRACE), publisher of the monthly journal Suchasnist. CIA terminated QRPLUMB after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1991 and provided funds to enable Prolog to transition to a privately-funded company. In 1992, Prolog’s monthly Ukrainian journal Suchasnist (Contemporary Times) was successfully transitioned to a publishing company in Kiev, Ukraine and thereafter was published as a collaborative effort between Prolog and a Ukrainian group in Kiev. Ivan Hrinioch, Mykola Lebed, Yury Lopatinsky, Lyubomir Ortinskiy associated with Project.|
|AEBLOSSOM||AEBLOSSOM provided training for selected projects dealing with Latvia. Rudolf Kocins, Juris Spade considered for possible use on Project.|
|AEBOLSTER-1||Cryptonym for Michael Rudko.|
|AECADILT-10||Cryptonym for Wilhelm Gruenwaldt.|
|AECAMBARO-1||Cryptonym for Freds Launags.|
|AECAMBARO-2||Cryptonym for Arturs Brombergs.|
|AECAMBISTA-1||Cryptonym for the Byelorussian National Council (BNR). Mikola Abramtchik in Paris was the head of the BNR.|
|AECAMBISTA-16||Cryptonym for Vitaut Tumash.|
|AECAMBISTA-17||Cryptonym for Stanislaw Stankiewicz.|
|AECAMBISTA-2||Cryptonym for Major Boris Ragula.|
|AECAMBISTA-4||Cryptonym for Mikola Abramtchik.|
|AECAMUSO-2||Cryptonym for Edvins Ozolins.|
|AECANOE-3||Cryptonym for Vilis Janums.|
|AECAPELIN-1||Cryptonym for Michael Korzhan.|
|AECAPELIN-2||Cryptonym for Volodymyr Bohdan Slymakovsky.|
|AECARRERA||AECARRERA (1953-58) exploited REDCAP opportunities (collection of information on Soviets stationed abroad) arising out of the propaganda distributed by AEVIRGIL and collected positive intelligence through debriefings of East German nationals visiting the AECARRERA office in Berlin in response to AEVIRGIL materials ballooned into East Germany. Wilhelm Gruenwaldt associated with Project.|
|AECARTHAGE||AERODYNAMIC (formerly CARTEL, ANDROGEN, AECARTHAGE) (1949-70) refers to CIA support for ZP/UHVR (Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council), which began in 1949. CIA helped to establish in New York City the Prolog Research and Publishing Company in 1953 as ZP/UHVR’s publishing and research arm. Prolog, through an affiliate in Munich, published periodicals and selected books and pamphlets which sought to exploit and increase nationalist and other dissident tendencies in the Soviet Ukraine. ZP/UHVR operational activity concentrated on propaganda and contact operations. In 1970, AERODYNAMIC was redesignated QRPLUMB. The file includes AERODYNAMIC Development and Plans (Vol. 1-8), Operations (Vol. 9-41), and Contact Reports (Vol. 42-47). Yaroslav Fedyk, Ivan Hrinioch, Mykola Lebed, Yury Lopatinsky, Lyubomir Ortinskiy associated with Project. Roman Tymewycz a clerical employee in Branch Office of Project AERODYNAMIC.|
|AECASSOWARY-1||Cryptonym for Ukrainian émigré organization, ZP/UHVR, Foreign Representation of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council.|
|AECASSOWARY-2||Cryptonym for Mykola Lebed.|
|AECASSOWARY-27||Cryptonym for Lyubomir Ortinskiy.|
|AECASSOWARY-3||Cryptonym for Ivan Hrinioch.|
|AECASSOWARY-6||Cryptonym for Yaroslav Fedyk.|
|AECAVATINA||Cryptonym for either Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) or Foreign Section of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Zch/OUN).|
|AECAVATINA-1||Cryptonym for Stefan Bandera.|
|AECAVATINA-12||Cryptonym for Ivan Kashuba.|
|AECAVATINA-2||Cryptonym for Yaroslav Stetsko.|
|AECAVATINA-5||Cryptonym for Bodhan Pidhainy.|
|AECAVATINA-6||Cryptonym for the Bandera faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN-B).|
|AECHAMP||AEFREEMAN (1953-64), which included AEBASIN/AEROOT (1953-60), AEFLAG (1955-62), and AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (1949-59)), was designed to strengthen resistance to communism and harrass the Soviet regime in the Baltic countries. AEBASIN/AEROOT supported Estonian emigres and émigré activities aganist the Estonian SSR. AEFLAG was aimed at people of the Latvian SSR. AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (formerly BGLAPIN)) targeted the Lithuanian SSR. These projects provided intelligence and operational data from Baltic countries through radio broadcasts, mailing operations, liaison with emigre organizations, political and psychological (PP) briefings for legal travelers and exploitation of other media such as demonstrations. Aleks Kurgvel, Elmar Lipping, Romulus Mandel associated with AEBASIN/AEROOT Project. Vilis Hazners associated with AEFLAG Project. Antanas Bernotas, Jouzas Brazaitis, Stasys Rastikis associated with AEPOLE Project. Alexandras Lileikis associated with AECHAMP Project. ILgvars Skaistlauks considered for possible use on AECHAMP Project. See AEGEAN/CAPSTAN.|
|AECHAMP-7||Cryptonym for Alexandras Lileikis.|
|AECHEROOT||Atomic energy sampling program.|
|AECOB||AECOB, approved in 1950, was a vehicle for foreign intelligence (FI) operations into and within Soviet Latvia and involved infiltration and exfiltration of black agents and the recruitment of legally resident agents in the USSR, especially Latvia. ZRLYNCH was approved in 1950 for use of the Latvian Resistance Movement, which had been formed in 1944, as a vehicle for clandestine activities within the USSR. ZRLYNCH was renewed in 1952 as a part of AECOB, which then provided both FI and political and psychological (PP) activities. AECOB / ZRLYNCH PP project was terminated in 1955. AECOB FI project was terminated in 1959. Roberts Ancans, Andrejs Apsits, Nikolajs Balodis, Arturs Brombergs, Freds Launags, Edvins Ozolins, Janis Ozolins, Janis Presnikovs, Alfreds Riekstins, Peteris Rungis, ILmars Rupners, Arturs Stankevics, Vidvuds Sveics, Voldis Viksna associated with Project. Janis Ozols considered for possible use on Project.|
|AECOB-1||Cryptonym for Voldis Viksna.|
|AECOB-10||Cryptonym for Andrejs Apsits.|
|AECOB-3||Cryptonym for Arturs Stankevics.|
|AECOB-4||Cryptonym for ILmars Rupners.|
|AECOB-5||Cryptonym for Peteris Rungis.|
|AECOB-6||Cryptonym for Janis Presnikovs.|
|AECOB-7||Cryptonym for Vidvuds Sveics.|
|AECOB-8||Cryptonym for Janis Ozolins.|
|AECONFIDE-1||Cryptonym for Walther Block.|
|AECORSAIR-3||Cryptonym for Ignatz Apyrubis.|
|AECUPBOARD||Program to establish and maintain a communications channel via open mailing of packages to the USSR.|
|AEDEPOT||AEDEPOT (formerly AEREADY) (1957-65) was designed to provide a trained „Hot War“ cadre of agents who could be used during a period of heightened tensions/increased alert or during actual hostilities against the Soviet Union. Mikola Abramtchik, Constantine Mierlak, Tscherim Soobzokov associated with Project.|
|AEDOGMA||AEDOGMA / AEBATH (1947-61), which supported the activities of the Principal Agent (PA), Michael Korzhan, was designed to produce CI/CE information on two Ukrainian nationalist groups in Germany; positive intelligence on other Ukrainian groups in Germany and Western Europe; information on Soviet penetration of Orthodox churches; and miscellaneous CE and other support activities beginning in 1947. In 1959, the PA was transferred to Paris to report on the efforts of the Soviet Services in emigre circles; and to act as a spotter in Soviet emigre circles for REDSKIN opportunities. The PA was not very productive in Paris and the project was terminated in 1961.|
|AEDOGMA-1||Cryptonym for Michael Korzhan.|
|AEFLAG||AEFREEMAN (1953-64), which included AEBASIN/AEROOT (1953-60), AEFLAG (1955-62), and AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (1949-59)), was designed to strengthen resistance to communism and harrass the Soviet regime in the Baltic countries. AEBASIN/AEROOT supported Estonian emigres and émigré activities aganist the Estonian SSR. AEFLAG was aimed at people of the Latvian SSR. AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (formerly BGLAPIN)) targeted the Lithuanian SSR. These projects provided intelligence and operational data from Baltic countries through radio broadcasts, mailing operations, liaison with emigre organizations, political and psychological (PP) briefings for legal travelers and exploitation of other media such as demonstrations. Aleks Kurgvel, Elmar Lipping, Romulus Mandel associated with AEBASIN/AEROOT Project. Vilis Hazners associated with AEFLAG Project. Antanas Bernotas, Jouzas Brazaitis, Stasys Rastikis associated with AEPOLE Project. Alexandras Lileikis associated with AECHAMP Project. ILgvars Skaistlauks considered for possible use on AECHAMP Project.|
|AEFORD||PBSTEAM (formerly EUCHRE, later AEFORD) (1948-50) provided the services, experience, and backgound of a Russian specialist, Gustav Hilger, not only for CIA but also for other U.S. Government agencies.|
|AEFREEMAN||AEFREEMAN (1953-64), which included AEBASIN/AEROOT (1953-60), AEFLAG (1955-62), and AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (1949-59)), was designed to strengthen resistance to communism and harrass the Soviet regime in the Baltic countries. AEBASIN/AEROOT supported Estonian emigres and émigré activities aganist the Estonian SSR. AEFLAG was aimed at people of the Latvian SSR. AEPOLE (formerly AECHAMP (formerly BGLAPIN)) targeted the Lithuanian SSR. These projects provided intelligence and operational data from Baltic countries through radio broadcasts, mailing operations, liaison with emigre organizations, political and psychological (PP) briefings for legal travelers and exploitation of other media such as demonstrations. Aleks Kurgvel, Elmar Lipping, Romulus Mandel associated with AEBASIN/AEROOT Project. Vilis Hazners associated with AEFLAG Project. Antanas Bernotas, Jouzas Brazaitis, Stasys Rastikis associated with AEPOLE Project. Alexandras Lileikis associated with AECHAMP Project. ILgvars Skaistlauks considered for possible use on AECHAMP Project.|
|AEGEAN||AEGEAN (formerly CAPSTAN) provided FI (foreign intelligence) from the Baltic States and USSR using support bases developed in the Lithuanian SSR as transit points. AEGEAN/CAPSTAN work continued under Project AECHAMP.|
|AEGIDEON||AESAURUS / AENOBLE (initially AEROSOL, renamed AEGIDEON / AENOBLE in 1958) operation (1950-61) maintained communications with agents of the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (Narodno Trudovoi Soyuz or NTS (CABOCHE-1, PDGIDEON, SHUBA-100)). NTS was founded in 1930s by Russian emigres with extreme rightest and anti-Semitic views and collaborated closely with the Nazis in Russia, providing local administrators, propagandists, and informants. NTS rebuilt itself in 1945 as an anti-Soviet émigré organization inside the USSR and with its own newspaper „Possev.“ This project sought the development and exploitation of NTS agents as long- term hot war assets and as sources of operational positive and psychological intelligence. The Project included Operation CARCASS, training/dispatch into USSR of agents to organize resistance groups and collect FI; Operation SPAIN to establish NTS groups in US zone/Germany and Austria against Soviet occupation forces through propaganda, defection, resistance, and collecting FI; Operation RADIO to establish a mobile covert radio operated by NTS for propaganda into East Zone. See also QKDROOP.|
|AEGLOBE||Soviet Merchant Marine personnel.|
|AEGRIP||Soviet Military Intelligence Directorate.|
|AEHAWKEYE-1||Cryptonym for Freds Launags.|
|AEISSUE-1||Cryptonym for Heinrich Bandholz.|
|AEJAMMER||AEJAMMER provided translations and exploitation of Soviet mail intercept programs. Aleks Kurgvel associated with Project.|
|AEJAMMER-8||Cryptonym for Aleks Kurgvel.|
|AEJETSET||Cryptonym for Erik Heine vs Yuri Raus lawsuit in Baltimore.|
|AEKICK||Soviet Committee for State Security, KGB.|
|AEKILO-2||Cryptonym for Vilis Hazners.|
|AELADLE||Anatoliy Golitsyn, Soviet defector and former KGB officer.|
|AELICTOR-1||Cryptonym for Ignatz Apyrubis.|
|AELUNG||Cryptonym for Aleks Kurgvel.|
|AEMANNER||AEMANNER (1955-58) was an operation to collect intelligence on the Lithuanian SSR by spotting, recruiting, and training Lithuanians who planned to return to Lithuania; spotting, recruiting, and training Lithuanian merchant seamen who would be on vessels calling at Lithuanian SSR ports; exploiting existing postal channels between Lithuanian SSR and the West; and interrogating persons coming out of the Lithuanian SSR. Ignatz Apyrubis and Alexandras Lileikis associated with Project.|
|AEMANNER-23||Cryptonym for Ignatz Apyrubis.|
|AEMANNER-7||Cryptonym for Alexandras Lileikis.|
|AEMARSH||AEMARSH (1953-59) involved collecting foreign intelligence on the Soviet regime in Latvia through sources residing in the Latvian SSR, legal travelers, and all possible legal means. The Institute for Latvian Culture (AEMINX) was established as a cover facility engaged in the preservation and development of Latvian national culture, collection of information on Latvian national life, and the safeguarding and preserving of physical, spiritual, and moral conditions of Latvians who were separated from their homeland. Alfreds Berzins, Aleksandrs Burmeisters, Janis Cirulis, Vilis Hazners, Peteris Janelsins, Freds Launags, Herberts Zagars associated with Project.|
|AEMARSH-1||Cryptonym for Herberts Zagars.|
|AEMARSH-14||Cryptonym for Alfreds Berzins.|
|AEMARSH-15||Cryptonym for Peteris Janelsins.|
|AEMINX||Cryptonym for the Institute for Latvian Culture that was established as a cover facility under Project AEMARSH.|
|AENIDUS||BND/CIA joint operations against Karlshorst, the Soviet compound in East Berlin.|
|AENOBLE||AESAURUS / AENOBLE (initially AEROSOL, renamed AEGIDEON / AENOBLE in 1958) operation (1950-61) maintained communications with agents of the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (Narodno Trudovoi Soyuz or NTS (CABOCHE-1, PDGIDEON, SHUBA-100)). NTS was founded in 1930s by Russian emigres with extreme rightest and anti-Semitic views and collaborated closely with the Nazis in Russia, providing local administrators, propagandists, and informants. NTS rebuilt itself in 1945 as an anti-Soviet émigré organization inside the USSR and with its own newspaper „Possev.“ This project sought the development and exploitation of NTS agents as long- term hot war assets and as sources of operational positive and psychological intelligence. The Project included Operation CARCASS, training/dispatch into USSR of agents to organize resistance groups and collect FI; Operation SPAIN to establish NTS groups in US zone/Germany and Austria against Soviet occupation forces through propaganda, defection, resistance, and collecting FI; Operation RADIO to establish a mobile covert radio operated by NTS for propaganda into East Zone. See also QKDROOP.|
|AEPAYOFF||Information collected on the Soviet Trade Mission in Bonn, Germany.|
|AEPIONEER||AEPIONEER provided personnel to do translations. Aleks Kurgvel associated with Project.|
|AEPIONEER-6||Cryptonym for Aleks Kurgvel.|
|AEPLIMSOLL||Shipyards at Kiel, Germany.|
|AEPOLE-1 organization||Lithuanian émigré organization in West Germany.|
|AEPOLE-5||Cryptonym for Stasys Rastikis.|
|AEPOLE-8||Cryptonym for Jouzas Brazaitis.|
|AEPRIMER||AEPRIMER’s (1957-59) objective was to establish long-term, durable assets illegally infiltrated into the Byelorussian SSR. Candidates for these assets were to be recommended by the Byelorussian National Council (BNR). However, AEQUOR/FI had similar objectives and was terminated in 1956 when information about AEQUOR Team 2 in Byelorussia surfaced in Pravda. In addition, AEQUOR’s relationship with the BNR was terminated for security reasons. AEPRIMER’s association with the BNR was limited to its President (Mikola Abramtchik) and his representative (Francis Kushel) in New York. AEPRIMER was terminated in 1959. Constantine Mierlak associated with Project.|
|AEPRIMER-1||Cryptonym for Constantine Mierlak.|
|AEQUOR||AEQUOR Project (1951-62) involved operations into Byelorussia through the exploitation of the Byelorussia National Council (BNR), and later evolved into primarily supporting the publication of a Byelorussian language weekly newspaper. Mikola Abramtchik, Francis Kushel, Boris Ragula, Stanislaw Stankiewicz, Vitaut Tumash associated with Project. See AEPRIMER.|
|AEREADY||AEDEPOT (formerly AEREADY) (1957-65) was designed to provide a trained „Hot War“ cadre of agents who could be used during a period of heightened tensions/increased alert or during actual hostilities against the Soviet Union. Mikola Abramtchik, Constantine Mierlak, Tscherim Soobzokov associated with Project.|
|AEREADY-2||Cryptonym for Constantine Mierlak.|
|AEREALITY||AEREALITY was the Soviet Realities Orientation Training Program. Aleks Kurgvel associated with Project.|
|AERECOVER||CARECOVER (formerly AERECOVER) was a net of Soviet military intelligence agents in Wiesbaden.|
|AERODYNAMIC||AERODYNAMIC (formerly CARTEL, ANDROGEN, AECARTHAGE) (1949-70) refers to CIA support for ZP/UHVR (Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council), which began in 1949. CIA helped to establish in New York City the Prolog Research and Publishing Company in 1953 as ZP/UHVR’s publishing and research arm. Prolog, through an affiliate in Munich, published periodicals and selected books and pamphlets which sought to exploit and increase nationalist and other dissident tendencies in the Soviet Ukraine. ZP/UHVR operational activity concentrated on propaganda and contact operations. In 1970, AERODYNAMIC was redesignated QRPLUMB. The file includes AERODYNAMIC Development and Plans (Vol. 1-8), Operations (Vol. 9-41), and Contact Reports (Vol. 42-47). Yaroslav Fedyk, Ivan Hrinioch, Mykola Lebed, Yury Lopatinsky, Lyubomir Ortinskiy associated with Project. Roman Tymewycz a clerical employee in Branch Office of Project AERODYNAMIC.|
|AEROOT-7||Cryptonym for Romulus Mandel.|
|AEROSOL||AESAURUS / AENOBLE (initially AEROSOL, renamed AEGIDEON / AENOBLE in 1958) operation (1950-61) maintained communications with agents of the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (Narodno Trudovoi Soyuz or NTS (CABOCHE-1, PDGIDEON, SHUBA-100)). NTS was founded in 1930s by Russian emigres with extreme rightest and anti-Semitic views and collaborated closely with the Nazis in Russia, providing local administrators, propagandists, and informants. NTS rebuilt itself in 1945 as an anti-Soviet émigré organization inside the USSR and with its own newspaper „Possev.“ This project sought the development and exploitation of NTS agents as long- term hot war assets and as sources of operational positive and psychological intelligence. The Project included Operation CARCASS, training/dispatch into USSR of agents to organize resistance groups and collect FI; Operation SPAIN to establish NTS groups in US zone/Germany and Austria against Soviet occupation forces through propaganda, defection, resistance, and collecting FI; Operation RADIO to establish a mobile covert radio operated by NTS for propaganda into East Zone. See also QKDROOP.|
|AESCREEN||AESCREEN was Russian language transcription unit. Aleks Kurgvel associated with Project.|
|AESIDECAR-2||Cryptonym for Edgars Laipenieks.|
|AETARGET||AETARGET provided information about Soviet audio monitoring programs. Aleks Kurgvel associated with Project.|
|AETENURE||Prolog Research Corporation, the New York publishing arm of Project QRPLUMB.|
|AETERRACE||Ukrainian Society for Foreign Studies, which was the Munich office of QRPLUMB and published the monthly journal Suchasnist.|
|AETOMAC-1||Cryptonym for the Byelorussian Central Council (BZR/BCR).|
|AETOMAC-2||Cryptonym for Radislaw Ostrowsky.|
|AETOPHAT||Information collected on the Soviet Embassy near Bonn, Germany.|
|AEVAIN-14||Cryptonym for Aleksandrs Burmeisters.|
|AEVAIN-24||Cryptonym for Janis Cirulis.|
|AEVIRGIL||AEVIRGIL (1953-63) provided a controlled, anti-communist émigré organization for political and psychological activities against the Soviet target. The particular émigré organization, which was called the Central Association of Post-War Emigres (TsOPE) and located in Munich, produced and disseminated Russian language leaflets and a monthly magazine (Svoboda), held propaganda meetings and press conferences, and was engaged in psychological warfare against the Soviet target. Wilhelm Gruenwaldt associated with Project.|
|AEVIRGIL-109||Cryptonym for Wilhelm Gruenwaldt.|
|AFU Program||AFU Program/UJLENTIL refers to SATURN Program’s Berlin and East German foreign intelligence staybehind observer/reporter teams.|
|AIN||Activities associated with the Armenians during 1952-54. Drostamat Kanayan associated with Project.|
|AJAJA||Cable indicator for CIA Near East Division.|
|AKULE||CIA Latin America Division.|
|ALBERT||Gehlen Organization alias for Andreas Haderlein.|
|Albert, Ludwig||V-2600 (Gehlen Organization V-Number). ANDERS (Gehlen Organization alias).|
|Albert, Theodor Von||GRANOLITE-30 (cryptonym).|
|ALBERTI, Dr. Ernst||Gehlen Organization alias for Emil Augsburg.|
|ALCATRAZ||Project ALCATRAZ involved penetration of Communist Party of Germany. Hildegard Beetz associated with Project. Herbert Von Strempel, Kuno Wirsich considered for possible use by OSS/SSU/CIG on Project.|
|ALLEYCAT-14||Cryptonym for Roberts Stiglics.|
|ALLMANN, Heinrich||Gehlen Organization alias for Erich Olbrueck.|
|ALTHAUS, Dr. Ernst||Gehlen Organization alias for Emil Augsburg.|
|AMCOMLIB||American Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (AMCOMLIB) was a part of Project QKACTIVE. Mikola Abramtchik was the representative of a coordinating committee of non-Russian organizations representing six nationalities (Ukrainians, Georgians, Azerbaijani, North Caucasians, Armenians, and Byelorussians), which was founded in Europe to represent non- Russian groups willing to associate themselves with AMCOMLIB. PBAFFIRM (cryptonym). PBCHORD (cryptonym for Munich Office of AMCOMLIB).|
|AMIS||Austrian Military Intelligence Service (AMIS). GREENSOAP (cryptonym).|
|Amt Blank||Amt Blank was the predecessor organization of a part of West Germany’s Ministry of Defense under Theodore Blank, the first postwar Minister of Defense during the Adenauer administration. Colonel Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz associated with Amt Blank.|
|Ancans, Roberts||CATTURA (cryptonym). Associated with AECOB/ZRLYNCH Project.|
|ANDERS||Gehlen Organization alias for Ludwig Albert.|
|Anders, Heinz||Heinz SCHAUTH, Peter ANDERS, Peter KIRCHNER (Gehlen Organization aliases).|
|ANDERS, Peter||Gehlen Organization alias for Heinz Anders.|
|ANDROGEN||AERODYNAMIC (formerly CARTEL, ANDROGEN, AECARTHAGE) (1949-70) refers to CIA support for ZP/UHVR (Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council), which began in 1949. CIA helped to establish in New York City the Prolog Research and Publishing Company in 1953 as ZP/UHVR’s publishing and research arm. Prolog, through an affiliate in Munich, published periodicals and selected books and pamphlets which sought to exploit and increase nationalist and other dissident tendencies in the Soviet Ukraine. ZP/UHVR operational activity concentrated on propaganda and contact operations. In 1970, AERODYNAMIC was redesignated QRPLUMB. The file includes AERODYNAMIC Development and Plans (Vol. 1-8), Operations (Vol. 9-41), and Contact Reports (Vol. 42-47). Yaroslav Fedyk, Ivan Hrinioch, Mykola Lebed, Yury Lopatinsky, Lyubomir Ortinskiy associated with Project. Roman Tymewycz a clerical employee in Branch Office of Project AERODYNAMIC.|
|Angerer, Johann||PP-5 (Otto Von Bolschwing’s cryptonym for a member of his PP Net (Austrian Police and a counterintelligence network) in Austria).|
|ANT||OSS/SSU cryptonym for Klavoli Voss.|
|ANTLER||Cryptonym for Mykola Lebed.|
|ANTONOV, Rostislav||Pseudonym for Sergie Shebalin.|
|APOSTLES||Couriers sent by ZPUHVR to the Ukraine beginning in 1949.|
|Apsits, Andrejs||TILBURY-1, AECOB-10 (cryptonyms). Associated with AECOB Project.|
|Apyrubis, Ignatz||AELICTOR-1, AECORSAIR-3, AEMANNER-23 (cryptonyms). Associated with Project AEMANNER.|
|AQUATIC||CIA Technical Services Division (TSD).|
|Aradi, Zsolt||CRABBE, SARAZEN (OSS cryptonyms). KILKENNY, CARRYALL (CIA cryptonyms). Malcolm W. STEVENS (pseudonym).|
|AREDIT||Plan BAZAR and Project AREDIT included intelligence reporting on Near East matters. Ugo Dadone associated with Projects.|
|Arlt, Fritz||V-2881 (Gehlen Organization V-Number). WERNER (Gehlen Organization alias).|
|Arrow Cross||The Hungarian Arrow Cross was formed in the 1930s as the leading Hungarian fascist political party, led by Ferenc Szalasi. The Arrow Cross party ruled Hungary from 15 Oct. 1944 to Jan. 1945 and, during that time, sent 80,000 Jews on a death march to the Austrian border.|
|ASCHAM, Robert A.||Pseudonym for Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles.|
|Aso. Tatsuo||STBRANT-1, TLBRANT, LFSALAD (cryptonyms).|
|Augsburg, Emil||V-2907 (Gehlen Organization V-Number). Dr. Ernst ALBERTI, Dr. Ernst ALTHAUS, Dr. KRAUSS (Gehlen Organization aliases).|
|AVOCET||Cryptonym for Heinz Schmalschlager.|